This clinical report replaces the 1998 policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics on cholesterol in childhood, which has been retired. This report has taken on new urgency given the current epidemic of childhood obesity with the subsequent increasing risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in older children and adults. The approach to screening children and adolescents with a fasting lipid profile remains a targeted approach. Overweight children belong to a special risk category of children and are in need of cholesterol screening regardless of family history or other risk factors. This report reemphasizes the need for prevention of cardiovascular disease by following Dietary Guidelines for Americans and increasing physical activity and also includes a review of the pharmacologic agents and indications for treating dyslipidemia in children.
Synergistic effects of elevated systolic blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia on carotid intima-media thickness in children and adolescents
An eight-week trial investigating the efficacy and tolerability of atorvastatin for children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk factors in children with parental history of premature ischemic heart disease
Metabolic syndrome risk factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate among children and adolescents
Detection and care of familial hypercholesterolaemia in the community: is there a role for the pharmacist?
Hypercholesterolemia in youth: opportunities and obstacles to prevent premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Developing an electronic clinical decision support system to promote guideline adherence for healthy weight management and cardiovascular risk reduction in children: a progress update
Triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese Han children
Familial hypercholesterolemia and lipoprotein(a) hyperlipidemia as independent and combined cardiovascular risk factors
Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries
Clinical characteristics and causes of chest pain in 380 children referred to a paediatric cardiology unit
Lack of dietary diversity and dyslipidaemia among stunted overweight children: the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey
Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 4-year-old children are associated with parental levels and track over time
Comparability of skinfold thickness to DXA whole-body total fat in their associations with serum triglycerides in youths
Multi-locus candidate gene analyses of lipid levels in a pediatric Turkish cohort: lessons learned on LPL, CETP, LIPC, ABCA1, and SHBG
Routine screening for chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection: why don't the guidelines agree?
Reductions in all-cause, cancer, and coronary mortality in statin-treated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a prospective registry study
The effects of aerobic exercise on psychosocial functioning of adolescents who are overweight or obese
Dyslipidemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Latin American children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
The initiatives and outcomes for cardiovascular risks that can be achieved through paediatric counselling
Cardiovascular risk assessment and cholesterol management in adolescents: getting to the heart of the matter
Long-term outcomes for HIV-infected infants less than 6 months of age at initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir combination antiretroviral therapy
Lipid levels in the second year of life among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected Latin American children
Clinical management and follow-up of hypercholesterolemia among perinatally HIV-infected children enrolled in the PACTG 219C study
Non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents with and without impaired fasting glucose
Prevalence of traditional and novel markers of cardiovascular disease risk in Scottish adolescents: socioeconomic effects
Changes in eNOS phosphorylation contribute to increased arteriolar NO release during juvenile growth
Utility of currently recommended pediatric dyslipidemia classifications in predicting dyslipidemia in adulthood: evidence from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) study, Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, and Bogalusa Heart Study
Pediatric metabolic syndrome predicts adulthood metabolic syndrome, subclinical atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus but is no better than body mass index alone: the Bogalusa Heart Study and the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Insulin resistance and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents
National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades
Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study
Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study
High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study
The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a novel school-based intervention to prevent obesity in school children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Metabolic syndrome in overweight children from the city of Botucatu - São Paulo State - Brazil: agreement among six diagnostic criteria
Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment
Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group
Effects of dietary cholesterol and simvastatin on cholesterol synthesis in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
Subjects with molecularly defined familial hypercholesterolemia or familial defective apoB-100 are not being adequately treated
Value of laboratory tests in employer-sponsored health risk assessments for newly identifying health conditions: analysis of 52,270 participants
Association between different growth curve definitions of overweight and obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children
Fasting might not be necessary before lipid screening: a nationally representative cross-sectional study
Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: integration of new data, evolving views, revised goals, and role of rosuvastatin in management. A comprehensive survey
Management of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in children: consensus and controversy
Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits
Long-term follow-up of statin treatment in a cohort of children with familial hypercholesterolemia: efficacy and tolerability
Metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and GFR decline in children with chronic kidney disease
An 11-year-old boy with familial hypercholesterolemia showing multiple xanthomas and advanced atherosclerosis, who responded to lipid-lowering therapy using statin
Recommendations for Meeting the Pediatric Patient's Need for a Clinical Pharmacist: A Joint Opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group
Nonoptimal lipids commonly present in young adults and coronary calcium later in life: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study
Subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Influence of the Mediterranean diet on carotid intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolaemic children: a 12-month intervention study
Individual-, family-, community-, and policy-level impact of a school-based cardiovascular risk detection screening program for children in underserved, rural areas: the CARDIAC Project
No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children
Hope for the future: early recognition of increased cardiovascular risk in children and how to deal with it
Comparison of carotid intima-media thickness in pediatric patients with metabolic syndrome, heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia and normals
Echo-Doppler assessment of the biophysical properties of the aorta in children with chronic kidney disease
Echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness among asymptomatic HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand
Segmentation of endothelial cell boundaries of rabbit aortic images using a machine learning approach
Effect of oligofructose supplementation on body weight in overweight and obese children: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Lipid changes in Kenyan HIV-1-infected infants initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy by 1 year of age
Effect of specific ART drugs on lipid changes and the need for lipid management in children with HIV
Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension
Primary hyperlipidemias in children: effect of plant sterol supplementation on plasma lipids and markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption
Metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected paediatric patients
Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic study
Development of paediatric biochemistry centile charts as a complement to laboratory reference intervals
A rare complication in a child undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: superior sagittal sinus thrombosis
Management of familial hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents. Position paper of the Polish Lipid Expert Forum
Compliance with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for hyperlipidemia in a resident-run ambulatory clinic: a retrospective data analysis
The child as proband for future parental cardiometabolic disease: the 26-year prospective Princeton Lipid Research Clinics Follow-up Study
The role of pharmacotherapy in the prevention and treatment of paediatric metabolic syndrome--Implications for long-term health: part of a series on Pediatric Pharmacology, guest edited by Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Emilio Clementi, and Massimo Molteni
Childhood risk factors predict cardiovascular disease, impaired fasting glucose plus type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure 26 years later at a mean age of 38 years: the Princeton-lipid research clinics follow-up study
Long-term pharmacotherapy for elevated low density lipoprotein levels in children: A retrospective analysis
Pediatric aspects of familial hypercholesterolemias: recommendations from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Future issues, public policy, and public awareness of familial hypercholesterolemias: recommendations from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Familial hypercholesterolemias: prevalence, genetics, diagnosis and screening recommendations from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Metabolic and endocrine adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents: A systematic review of randomized, placebo controlled trials and guidelines for clinical practice
Extremely elevated lipoprotein(a), combined hyperlipidemia, and premature atherosclerosis in a Chinese family
Rosuvastatin lowers coenzyme Q10 levels, but not mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis, in children with familial hypercholesterolemia
Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: Recommendations of the European Society of hypertension
Letter to the editor by Butler in response to "obesity and cholesterol in Japanese, French, and U.S. Children"
The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols
Colesevelam hydrochloride: efficacy and safety in pediatric subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
LMS tables for waist-circumference and waist-height ratio Z-scores in children aged 5-19 y in NHANES III: association with cardio-metabolic risks
Blood lipids, blood pressure, and BMI in childhood and adolescence: background to Project HeartBeat!
Family history and parents' beliefs about consequences of childhood overweight and their influence on children's health behaviors
Metabolic Health in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Longitudinal Study in a Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic
Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from a phase 3, randomised, double-blind withdrawal trial
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in middle-school children: association with cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors
Are active and passive smoking associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents? The CASPIAN-III Study
Association of lipid abnormalities with measures and severity of adiposity and insulin resistance among overweight children and adolescents
Homocysteine and cysteine levels in prepubertal children: association with waist circumference and lipid profile
Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes
High HOMA-IR, adjusted for puberty, relates to the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Chilean youths
Long-term medical management of the pediatric patient after liver transplantation: 2013 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the American Society of Transplantation
Use of annual ABPM, and repeated carotid scan and echocardiography to monitor cardiovascular health over nine yr in pediatric and young adult renal transplant recipients
Cardiovascular risk factors in multi-ethnic middle school students: the HEALTHY primary prevention trial
Recommendations for meeting the pediatric patient's need for a clinical pharmacist: a joint opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group
Accuracy of simple clinical and epidemiological definitions of childhood obesity: systematic review and evidence appraisal
Fatty liver and insulin resistance in children with hypobetalipoproteinemia: the importance of aetiology
Secular trends of blood pressure, body mass index, lipids and fasting glucose among children and adolescents in Turkey
Detecting and treating hyperlipidemia in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: are standard guidelines applicable to this special population?
Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia aggregate in nondiabetic children and adolescents with higher fasting plasma glucose levels
An observational study of type 2 diabetes within a large Australian tertiary hospital pediatric diabetes service
Obesity and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with elevated plasma complement C3 in children and adolescents
Small area variation and geographic and patient-specific determinants of metabolic testing in antipsychotic users
Cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors in children with GH deficiency: a prospective, case-control study
The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in a population-based sample of overweight/obese children in the Middle East
Conservative treatment of L-asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Anthropometric correlates of lipoprotein profile and blood pressure in high BMI African American children
Ex vivo TCR-induced leukocyte gene expression of inflammatory mediators is increased in type 1 diabetic patients but not in overweight children
Prevalence of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Assessment of metformin as an additional treatment to therapeutic lifestyle changes in pediatric patients with metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular medication use and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a population-based cohort study
Meta-Analyses of Statin Therapy for Primary Prevention Do Not Answer Key Questions: An Empirical Appraisal of 5 Years of Statin Meta-Analyses
Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension in patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide multicenter study in Brazil
Patterns and predictors of medication adherence to lipid-lowering therapy in children aged 8 to 20 years
Weight control behaviors and dietary intake among adolescents and young adults: longitudinal findings from Project EAT
Statin treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia--trying to balance incomplete evidence of long-term safety and clinical accountability: are we approaching a consensus?
Effects on metabolic health after a 1-year-lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese children: a randomized controlled trial
Reference intervals on the Abbot Architect for serum thyroid hormones, lipids and prolactin in healthy children in a population-based study
Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in children with iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Gluten-Free Diet and Lipid Profile in Children With Celiac Disease: Comparison With General Population Standards
Treatment decision making for adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia: Role of family history and past experiences.
Favorable Impacts of Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement Therapy on Atherogenic Risks in Japanese Children with GH Deficiency
Feasibility and efficacy of diabetic retinopathy screening among youth with diabetes in a pediatric endocrinology clinic: a cross-sectional study
Associations of total and abdominal adiposity with risk marker patterns in children at high-risk for cardiovascular disease
Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe monotherapy in children with heterozygous familial or nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia
Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among Balearic Islands adolescents, a Mediterranean region
Diagnosis and management of prediabetes in the continuum of hyperglycemia: when do the risks of diabetes begin? A consensus statement from the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.
The association of pediatric low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol dyslipidemia classifications and change in dyslipidemia status with carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood evidence from the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study, the Bogalusa Heart study, and the CDAH (Childhood Determinants of Adult Health) study
Comparison and Validation of 10 Equations Including a Novel Method for Estimation of LDL-cholesterol in a 168,212 Asian Population
Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Risk factors associated with aortic and carotid intima-media thickness in adolescents and young adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study
A role for metabolism in Rett syndrome pathogenesis: New clinical findings and potential treatment targets
Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children
Are we there yet? Pediatric screening for inflammatory biomarkers and low cardiorespiratory fitness to identify youth at increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Severe coronary disease in an adult considered at low cardiovascular disease risk with a healthy lifestyle
The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study
Three clustering patterns among metabolic syndrome risk factors and their associations with dietary factors in Korean adolescents: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007-2010
The association between intima media thickness, central obesity and diastolic blood pressure in obese and overweight children: a cross-sectional school-based study
Arterial blood pressure and serum lipids in a population of children and adolescents from Southern Italy: the Calabrian Sierras Community Study (CSCS)
Effect of relative weight group change on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived lipoprotein particle size and concentrations among adolescents
Adiposity markers and cardiovascular risk in urban Colombian adolescents: heterogeneity in association patterns
Markers of cardiovascular risk, insulin resistance, and ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in obese adolescents
Follow-up of children diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia in a national genetic screening program
Low dose chromium-polynicotinate or policosanol is effective in hypercholesterolemic children only in combination with glucomannan
Anthropometric indices are not satisfactory predictors of metabolic comorbidities in obese children and adolescents
Validation of a BMI cut-off point to predict an adverse cardiometabolic profile with adiposity measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Guatemalan children
Type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association
Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Results of a pilot study
The current state of dyslipidemia in Korean children and adolescents and its management in clinical practice
Weight Gain and Metabolic Consequences of Risperidone in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Dyslipidemia, carotid intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction in children with chronic kidney disease
Prevalence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension and associated factors in obese children and adolescents
Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study
Prevalence of comorbidities in obese New Zealand children and adolescents at enrolment in a community-based obesity programme
Effect of maternal zinc supplementation on the cardiometabolic profile of Peruvian children: results from a randomized clinical trial
Cardiovascular risk factor screening and management of obese patients at an outpatient pediatric cardiology center
10-Year Trends in Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidemia Among Children and Adolescents From Several Schools in Beijing, China
Are active and passive smoking associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents? The CASPIAN-III Study
Not enough doctors or not enough needs? Refocusing health workforce planning from providers and services to populations and needs
Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components
Increasing Universal Lipid Screening Among 9- to 11-Year-Old Children Through a Quality Improvement Initiative
Measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in assessment and management of cardiovascular disease risk
Cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children: analysis of biomarkers to identify monogenic dyslipidemia.
Intima-media thickness at different arterial segments in pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and its relationship with advanced glycation end products
Parenteral fish oil as monotherapy improves lipid profiles in children with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease
Physicians' Lack of Adherence to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Guidelines for Pediatric Lipid Screening
Factors affecting subspecialty referrals by pediatric primary care providers for children with obesity-related comorbidities
Differences in pediatric drug information sources used by general versus subspecialist pediatricians
Metabolic Abnormalities and Clinical Lipodystrophy in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Report From a Tertiary Care Center in India
Selected risk factors for atherosclerosis in children and their parents with positive family history of premature cardiovascular diseases: a prospective study
Efficacy and Safety of Pitavastatin in Children and Adolescents with Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Japan and Europe
Indicators of overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 11- to 17-year-old boys and girls in Germany
Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children
Anthropometric features as predictors of atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk in a large population of school-aged children
Review shows that lipid disorders are associated with endothelial but not renal dysfunction in children
Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V Study
Current Science on Consumer Use of Mobile Health for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association
Three reasons to abandon low-density lipoprotein targets: an open letter to the Adult Treatment Panel IV of the National Institutes of Health
Status of cardiovascular health in US children up to 11 years of age: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2010
Cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth with diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
Prevention of future cardiovascular disease in high-risk pediatric patients: a role for lipid lowering therapy?
Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol among children and adolescents in the United States
Influence of age on associations between childhood risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study, the Bogalusa Heart Study, and the Muscatine Study for the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium
Clinical implications of the molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia and other inherited dyslipidemias
Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
Prevention and treatment of thrombosis in pediatric and congenital heart disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
Determinants of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the First Decade of Life: A Longitudinal Study Starting at Birth
Is there a gender-specific association between asthma and carotid intima media thickness in Swiss adolescents?
Treatment Gaps in Adults With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in the United States: Data From the CASCADE-FH Registry
Serum ferritin level as an early indicator of metabolic dysregulation in young obese adults - a cross-sectional study
Changes in socio-economic status and lipoproteins in Chilean adolescents: a 16-year longitudinal study
Obesity is associated with greater valgus knee alignment in pubertal children, and higher body mass index is associated with greater variability in knee alignment in girls
Statin Safety and Associated Adverse Events: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Prenatal metal concentrations and childhood cardio-metabolic risk using Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression to assess mixture and interaction effects
Comparing the validity of continuous metabolic syndrome risk scores for predicting pediatric metabolic syndrome: the CASPIAN-V study
Economic status and clinical care in young type 1 diabetes patients: a nationwide multicenter study in Brazil
A Comparison of Metabolic Outcomes Between Obese HIV-Exposed Uninfected Youth From the PHACS SMARTT Study and HIV-Unexposed Youth From the NHANES Study in the United States
Own and Parental Predictors of Hypertriglyceridemia in Children of Persons with Early Ischemic Heart Disease
Metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk factors and health-related quality of life in children, adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Executive summary: Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 mo of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans--"the B-24 Project"
Heart Rate Variability and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Non-Hispanic Black Versus Non-Hispanic White Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes
Breastfeeding status at age 3 months is associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers at age 4 years in Mexican children
Cardiovascular and metabolic risk in pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency
Seven direct methods for measuring HDL and LDL cholesterol compared with ultracentrifugation reference measurement procedures
Comparison between metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity by different definitions among Mexican children
Healthy Body Weights With Corticosteroid-free Immunosuppression Is the Best Predictor of Cardiovascular Health in Children After Liver Transplantation
Nine-year overview of dyslipidemia management in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a university hospital outpatient lipid clinic project in Northwestern Greece.
The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children
Experience on statin therapy in paediatric age: retrospective study in a Portuguese referral centre.
Endothelial Dysfunction in South African Youth Living With Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Antiretroviral Therapy.
Changing from regular-fat to low-fat dairy foods reduces saturated fat intake but not energy intake in 4-13-y-old children
BMI, waist circumference, and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among preschool-age children
The prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
Insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents: a hierarchical approach
The APOA5-rs662799 Polymorphism Is a Determinant of Dyslipidemia in Vietnamese Primary School Children
Effect of Statin Therapy in 4-Year-Old Dichorionic Diamniotic Twins with Familial Hypercholesterolemia Showing Multiple Xanthomas
Comment on "Local accumulation of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells: evidence for an immune evasion mechanism in patients with large condylomata acuminata"
Offspring's blood pressure and metabolic phenotype after exposure to gestational hypertension in utero
Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city
Metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy obese children both have increased carotid intima-media thickness: a case control study
Decreasing the Cholesterol Burden in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Children by Dietary Plant Stanol Esters
Logic Regression Analysis of Gene Polymorphisms and HDL Levels in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study
A Comparison of the Impact of Two Methods of Nutrition-Behavioral Intervention on Selected Auxological and Biochemical Parameters in Obese Prepubertal Children-Crossover Preliminary Study
Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Young Adults With Non-classical 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency
Prevalence of Combined Lipid Abnormalities in Brazilian Adolescents and Its Association with Nutritional Status: Data from the Erica Study.
Risperidone plasma concentrations are associated with side effects and effectiveness in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents
Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Heart Disease
Exercise Capacity Assessment by the Modified Shuttle Walk Test and its Correlation with Biochemical Parameters in Obese Children and Adolescents
The Pattern of Complementary Foods in American Infants and Children Aged 0⁻5 Years Old-A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Data from the NHANES 2011⁻2014
Beverage Consumption Patterns among Infants and Young Children (0⁻47.9 Months): Data from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study, 2016
Comparison common equations for LDL-C calculation with direct assay and developing a novel formula in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN V study.
Meta-analysis of metabolic changes in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency after recombinant human growth hormone replacement therapy.
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists' Guidelines for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis.
Retrospective Review of Comorbid Conditions in a Multidisciplinary Pediatric Weight Management Clinic
Prenatal Metal Concentrations and Childhood Cardiometabolic Risk Using Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression to Assess Mixture and Interaction Effects
Familial hypercholesterolemia and elevated lipoprotein(a): double heritable risk and new therapeutic opportunities
Prevalence of, and biochemical and anthropometric risk factors for, dyslipidemia in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years in China: A cross-sectional study
Evaluation of the main late endocrine effects in children and adolescents after treatment of malignancies
Assessment of diastolic function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus - are there early signs of diabetic cardiomyopathy?
Effects of two therapeutic dietary regimens on primary chylomicronemia in paediatric age: a retrospective data analysis
Improvement in lipids after switch to boosted atazanavir or darunavir in children/adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV on older protease inhibitors: results from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
High Prevalence of Lipid Abnormalities and Insulin Resistance Among Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-infected Children in India
The Natural History of Metabolic Comorbidities in Turner Syndrome from Childhood to Early Adulthood: Comparison between 45,X Monosomy and Other Karyotypes
Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio among adolescents is associated with adult hypertension: the Kangwha study
Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in High-Risk Pediatric Patients: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Gluten Deprivation: What Nutritional Changes Are Found During the First Year in Newly Diagnosed Coeliac Children?
Body fat indicators perform better than body mass index in identifying abnormal lipid profiles in boys but not in girls
Absence of clinically relevant sirolimus-related hyperlipidemia in a cohort of children posthematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell disease.
Consensus recommendations for the use of retinoids in ichthyosis and other disorders of cornification in children and adolescents.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.
Overview of Dyslipidemia in Childhood and Adolescence: Why Does It Matter and What Do We Do About It?
Association of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Measured in Adolescence, Young Adulthood, and Mid-Adulthood With Coronary Artery Calcification Measured in Mid-Adulthood.
Association of early life factors with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-V study
Selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia: association with oxidative stress and lipid status biomarkers.
Long-term burden of higher body mass index from childhood on adult cardiometabolic biomarkers: A 30-year cohort study.
Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes: A single-center experience.
ApoB-lipoprotein remnant dyslipidemia and high-fat meal intolerance is associated with markers of cardiometabolic risk in youth with obesity.
Limitations of current screening methods for lipid disorders in Korean adolescents and a proposal for an effective detection method: a nationwide, cross-sectional study
Elevated Serum Concentrations of Remnant Cholesterol Associate with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children and Adolescents.
Prenatal maternal phthalate exposures and child lipid and adipokine levels at age six: A study from the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico City.
Prevention starts from the crib: the pediatric point of view on detection of families at high cardiovascular risk.
Universal Cholesterol Screening among Pediatric Primary Care Providers within California and Minnesota: A Qualitative Assessment of Barriers and Facilitators.
Carotid IMT and Stiffness in the KiGGS 2 National Survey: Third-Generation Measurement, Quality Algorithms and Determinants of Completeness
Early Prevention of Atherosclerosis: Detection and Management of Hypercholesterolaemia in Children and Adolescents.
Atherosclerosis Disease Progression
Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque on artery walls, causing stenosis which can eventually lead to clinically apparent cardiovascular disease. Find the latest research on atherosclerosis disease progression here.
Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology
Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.
CV Disorders & Type 2 Diabetes
This feed focuses on the association of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes.