Lipophilic toxin profile in Galicia (Spain): 2005 toxic episode

Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
A Villar-GonzálezL M Botana

Abstract

By the end of 2005, a toxic episode of phytoplankton origin in bivalve shellfish led to the closing down of several shellfish production areas in Galicia (northwestern region of Spain). During this time, different kinds of shellfish were collected and analysed by LC-MS/MS to search for the following lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), azaspiracids (AZAs) and spirolides. Samples were analysed before alkaline hydrolysis in order to investigate the presence of free OA and DTXs, AZAs, PTXs and spirolides, and after alkaline hydrolysis to detect OA and DTXs esters. All of the samples were found to be contaminated with OA and/or DTX-2, as well as esterified forms of these diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, at levels around and above European regulatory limit (160 microg of okadaic acid equivalents/kg). The analyses of mussels and razor clam also revealed the presence of 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) at levels below 31 microg/kg. Likewise, in many of the samples different levels of pectenotoxin-2 secoacid (PTX-2sa) were detected. DSP toxin esters represent practically the 100% of the total OA equivalents for scallops, clams, razor clams and cockles.

References

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Citations

Oct 12, 2011·Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment·Artemis P LouppisMichael G Kontominas
Jun 5, 2012·Chemical Research in Toxicology·L M Botana
Aug 4, 2010·Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry·Lina KantianiDamià Barceló
Sep 25, 2012·Marine Environmental Research·Maria Prado-AlvarezJuan Fernández-Tajes
Oct 24, 2009·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·Elisabeth CañeteJorge Diogène
Nov 3, 2009·Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology·Artemis P LouppisMichael G Kontominas
Jan 22, 2008·Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology·L A StoboE A Turrell
Feb 5, 2008·Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology·A Villar-GonzálezL M Botana
Sep 29, 2011·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP·Rodrigo González-RomeroJosé M Eirín-López
Apr 23, 2011·Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology·Renyan LiuLei Liu
Feb 1, 2018·Marine Drugs·Jimmy AlarcanValérie Fessard
Mar 13, 2008·Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM·Trine TorgersenChristopher O Miles
Jun 19, 2010·Analytical Chemistry·Paz OteroL M Botana

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