Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart

Frontiers in Physiology
Chao HuangFrank B Sachse


Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carr...Continue Reading


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Feb 23, 2020·European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery·Aditya K KazaRobert Hitchcock

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Methods Mentioned

confocal microscopy
optical microscopy
fluorescence imaging

Software Mentioned


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