Nov 6, 2012

Long distance relationships: enhancer-promoter communication and dynamic gene transcription

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
Judith Marsman, Julia A Horsfield

Abstract

The three-dimensional regulation of gene transcription involves loop formation between enhancer and promoter elements, controlling spatiotemporal gene expression in multicellular organisms. Enhancers are usually located in non-coding DNA and can activate gene transcription by recruiting transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and RNA Polymerase II. Research over the last few years has revealed that enhancers have tell-tale characteristics that facilitate their detection by several approaches, although the hallmarks of enhancers are not always uniform. Enhancers likely play an important role in the activation of genes by functioning as a primary point of contact for transcriptional activators, and by making physical contact with gene promoters often by means of a chromatin loop. Although numerous transcriptional regulators participate in the formation of chromatin loops that bring enhancers into proximity with promoters, the mechanism(s) of enhancer-promoter connectivity remain enigmatic. Here we discuss enhancer function, review some of the many proteins shown to be involved in establishing enhancer-promoter loops, and describe the dynamics of enhancer-promoter contacts during development, differentiation and in spe...Continue Reading

  • References120
  • Citations35

References

  • References120
  • Citations35

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

RNA Polymerase II
Chromatin Loop
Transcription, Genetic
Promoter
Operator gene
Gene Expression
Cell Differentiation Process
Chromatin Remodeling
Cell Type
Chromatin Location

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