Dec 5, 2019

Machine Learning for Cancer Immunotherapies Based on Epitope Recognition by T Cell Receptors

Frontiers in Genetics
Anja MöschDmitrij Frishman

Abstract

In the last years, immunotherapies have shown tremendous success as treatments for multiple types of cancer. However, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to increase response rates and identify effective therapies for every individual patient. Since there are many possibilities to boost a patient's immune response against a tumor and not all can be covered, this review is focused on T cell receptor-mediated therapies. CD8+ T cells can detect and destroy malignant cells by binding to peptides presented on cell surfaces by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I molecules. CD4+ T cells can also mediate powerful immune responses but their peptide recognition by MHC class II molecules is more complex, which is why the attention has been focused on CD8+ T cells. Therapies based on the power of T cells can, on the one hand, enhance T cell recognition by introducing TCRs that preferentially direct T cells to tumor sites (so called TCR-T therapy) or through vaccination to induce T cells in vivo. On the other hand, T cell activity can be improved by immune checkpoint inhibition or other means that help create a microenvironment favorable for cytotoxic T cell activity. The manifold ways in which the immune system a...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Signaling Molecule
In Vivo
Immune Response
T-Lymphocyte
Genes
Class 1
Neoplasms
Cross Reactions
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
Vaccination

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