Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Glutamatergic Dysfunction and Impaired Energy Metabolism

Neurochemical Research
João M N Duarte, Lijing Xin

Abstract

In the past couple of decades, major efforts were made to increase reliability of metabolic assessments by magnetic resonance methods. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been valuable for providing in vivo evidence and investigating biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia. Alterations of glutamate and glutamine levels in brains of schizophrenia patients relative to healthy subjects are generally interpreted as markers of glutamatergic dysfunction. However, only a small fraction of MRS-detectable glutamate is involved in neurotransmission. Here we review and discuss brain metabolic processes that involve glutamate and that are likely to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Related Concepts

Metazoa
Brain
Energy Metabolism
In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy
Schizophrenia
Potassium Glutamate
Biological Markers
Brain
Energy Metabolism
Glutamine

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