Male bias in ACE2 basic science research: missed opportunity for discovery in the time of COVID-19.

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Branka Miličić StanićKathryn Sandberg

Abstract

Throughout the world, including the United States, men have worse outcomes from COVID-19 than women. SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of the COVID-19 pandemic, uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain cellular entry. ACE2 is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and plays an important role in counteracting the harmful effects mediated by the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Therefore, we conducted Ovid MEDLINE and Embase database searches of basic science studies investigating the impact of the biological variable of sex on ACE2 expression and regulation from 2000, the year ACE2 was discovered, through December 31, 2020. Out of 2,131 publications, we identified 853 original research articles on ACE2 conducted in primary cells, tissues, and/or whole mammals excluding humans. The majority (68.7%) of these studies that cited the sex of the animal were conducted in males, while 11.2% were conducted solely in females; 9.26% compared ACE2 between the sexes, while 10.8% did not report the sex of the animals used. General findings are that sex differences are tissue-specific and when present, are dependent upon gonadal state. Renal, cardiac, and adipose ACE2 is increased in both sexes under experimental conditions that m...Continue Reading

References

Jan 30, 2002·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Chad VickersPeter Tummino
Mar 19, 2002·Hypertension·YiLin RenOscar A Carretero
Oct 3, 2002·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Natalie A DalesMichael A Patane
Jun 28, 2003·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Robson A S SantosThomas Walther
Jan 27, 2005·European Heart Journal·Louise M BurrellColin I Johnston
Jul 8, 2005·Nature·Yumiko ImaiJosef M Penninger
Jun 30, 2007·The American Journal of Pathology·Denise W WongJames W Scholey
Jul 25, 2008·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Manisha GupteLisa A Cassis
Nov 14, 2008·American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology·María José SolerDaniel Batlle
Apr 24, 2010·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Michael C ReedH Frederik Nijhout
May 8, 2010·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Sonja TesanovicRobert E Widdop
Jun 29, 2010·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Vinayak ShenoyMichael J Katovich
Jul 14, 2010·Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews·Annaliese K Beery, Irving Zucker
Nov 26, 2010·Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension·Chris TikellisWendy C Burns
Jan 10, 2012·American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology·Kelly PutnamLisa A Cassis
Jan 17, 2012·Journal of Molecular Medicine : Official Organ of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher Und Ärzte·G J Rey-ParraB Thébaud
Mar 2, 2012·American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology·Liliya M YamaleyevaMark C Chappell
Mar 31, 2012·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Manisha GupteLisa A Cassis
May 15, 2013·European Journal of Pharmacology·Katya RigattoMohan K Raizada
Feb 1, 2014·Nature·Francis S Collins, Lawrence A Tabak
Jun 20, 2014·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Kathryn SandbergWillis K Samson
Oct 11, 2014·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Sean E ThatcherLisa A Cassis
Dec 19, 2014·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Huijing XiaEric Lazartigues
Dec 30, 2014·American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology·Alicia A McDonoughDonna Lee Ralph
Feb 26, 2015·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·Kathryn SandbergUNKNOWN Georgetown Consensus Conference Work Group
Jun 17, 2015·American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism·Yu WangLisa A Cassis

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Software Mentioned

Ovid MEDLINE
Embase

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.

Related Papers

Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases
Behnaz BakhshandehZohreh Jahanafrooz
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Federica SaponaroRiccardo Zucchi
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
H F HettaH S M Farghaly
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved