Maternal and paternal risk factors for anorectal malformations: a Dutch case-control study

Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Iris A L M van RooijNel Roeleveld

Abstract

Anorectal malformations (ARM) are major congenital malformations that usually require a multitude of surgical procedures at a very early age and have a large impact on the lives of patients and their parents. The causes of ARM are still largely unknown, but they are assumed to have a multifactorial etiology. A few studies focused on environmental risk factors, but evidence is still scarce. In this Dutch case-control study (1996-2008), we investigated the role of maternal and paternal risk factors in the etiology of ARM. Parents of 85 ARM cases and 650 controls filled in a questionnaire. Controls were children treated with ear ventilation tubes. A higher occurrence of fever during the first trimester of pregnancy was found for case mothers compared to control mothers (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.9, 28.1). Maternal occupational exposure to industrial cleaning agents and solvents increased the risk of ARM three times (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.9, 9.3). Overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m(2)) before pregnancy also seemed to be associated with ARM (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), as well as maternal multivitamin use during pregnancy (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 2.7), paternal smoking (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.9)...Continue Reading

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Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.