Jul 1, 1996

Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Journal of Biomedical Science
N Ahmad

Abstract

The World Health Organization estimates that by year 2000, 10 million children will be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at birth and will subsequently develop AIDS. Perinatally acquired infections account for the majority of all HIV-1 cases in children, with an estimated mother-to-infant transmission rate of more than 30%. It is not clear why more than half of the children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are uninfected. Maternal transmission of HIV-1 occurs at three levels: prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum. Several maternal parameters including advanced clinical stages of the mother, low CD4+ lymphocyte counts, maternal immune response to HIV-1, recent infection, high level of circulating HIV-1, and maternal disease progression have been implicated in an increased risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1. Viral factors influencing mother-to-infant transmission are not known. Furthermore, several other factors such as acute infection during pregnancy, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or other chronic infections, vaginal bleeding, disruption of placental integrity, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), and preterm PROM have been associated with mother-to-infant transmission...Continue Reading

  • References139
  • Citations19

Mentioned in this Paper

Immune Response
Tissue Membrane
Zidovudine
Tobacco
Membrane
Placenta
Nicotiana
HIV Infections
Maternal Transmission
CD4 Count Determination Procedure

About this Paper

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