Mar 8, 2005

MC1R and the response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation

Mutation Research
Francois RouzaudV J Hearing

Abstract

The constitutive color of our skin plays a dramatic role in our photoprotection from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that reaches the Earth and in minimizing DNA damage that gives rise to skin cancer. More than 120 genes have been identified and shown to regulate pigmentation, one of the key genes being melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) that encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor expressed on the surface of melanocytes. Modulation of MC1R function regulates melanin synthesis by melanocytes qualitatively and quantitatively. The MC1R is regulated by the physiological agonists alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and antagonist agouti signaling protein (ASP). Activation of the MC1R by binding of an agonist stimulates the synthesis of eumelanin primarily via activation of adenylate cyclase. The significance of cutaneous pigmentation lies in the photoprotective effect of melanin, particularly eumelanin, against sun-induced carcinogenesis. Epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes respond to UVR by increasing their expression of alphaMSH and ACTH, which up-regulate the expression of MC1R, and consequently enhance the response of mela...Continue Reading

  • References77
  • Citations163

References

  • References77
  • Citations163

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Malignant Neoplasm of Skin
Immune Response
Melanoma, Cutaneous Malignant,1
Biochemical Pathway
Cyclic AMP-Responsive DNA-Binding Protein
Melanocyte
Phosphatidylinositols
MC4R gene
MC3R gene
Decreased Immunologic Activity [PE]

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