Sep 13, 2018

MC1R: Front and Center in the Bright Side of Dark Eumelanin and DNA Repair

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Viki Swope, Zalfa A Abdel-Malek


Melanin, the pigment produced by specialized cells, melanocytes, is responsible for skin and hair color. Skin pigmentation is an important protective mechanism against the DNA damaging and mutagenic effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). It is acknowledged that exposure to UV is the main etiological environmental factor for all forms of skin cancer, including melanoma. DNA repair capacity is another major factor that determines the risk for skin cancer. Human melanocytes synthesize eumelanin, the dark brown form of melanin, as well as pheomelanin, which is reddish-yellow in color. The relative rates of eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis by melanocytes determine skin color and the sensitivity of skin to the drastic effects of solar UV. Understanding the complex regulation of melanocyte function and how it responds to solar UV has a huge impact on developing novel photoprotective strategies to prevent skin cancer, particularly melanoma, the most fatal form, which originates from melanocytes. This review provides an overview of the known differences in the photoprotective effects of eumelanin versus pheomelanin, how these two forms of melanin are regulated genetically and biochemically, and their impact on the DNA damaging ...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations6


  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.

Mentioned in this Paper

Malignant Neoplasm of Skin
Health Center
ACTH (1-13)NH2
MC1R Protein
DNA Repair
Regulation of Biological Process
Cutaneous Melanoma
ACTH (1-13)

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.