DOI: 10.1101/501775Dec 19, 2018Paper

Measurement of junctional tension in epithelial cells at the onset of primitive streak formation in the chick embryo via non-destructive optical manipulation

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Valentina FerroCornelis J Weijer

Abstract

Oriented cell intercalations and cell shape changes are key determinants of large-scale epithelial cell sheet deformations occurring during gastrulation in many organisms. In several cases directional intercalation and cell shape changes have been shown to be associated with a planar cell polarity in the organisation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. This polarised cytoskeletal organisation has been postulated to reflect the directional tension necessary to drive and orient directional cell intercalations. We have now further characterised and applied a recently introduced non-destructive optical manipulation technique to measure the tension in individual cell junctions in the epiblast of chick embryos in the early stages of primitive streak formation. We have measured junctional tension as a function of position and orientation. Junctional tension of mesendoderm cells, the tissue that drives the formation of the streak, is higher than tension of junctions of cells in other parts of the epiblast. Furthermore, in the mesendoderm junctional tension is higher in the direction of intercalation. The data are fitted best with a Maxwell model and we find that both junctional tension and relaxation time are dependen...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Chick Embryo
Cytoskeleton
Embryo
Epithelial Cells
Microfilaments
Psychological Orientation
Cell Polarity
Tension
Gastrulation
Gene Function

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