Mechanism of the antipsychotic effect in the treatment of acute schizophrenia
In a double-blind trial in which 45 patients with acute schizophrenia took part the alpha-isomer of flupenthixol (which blocks the dopamine receptor) was found to be significantly more effective than both beta-flupenthixol (which does not) and placebo. The drug effect was confined to the "positive" symptoms--delusions, hallucinations, and though disorder--and appeared only in the 3rd and 4th weeks of the trial. It was as great in patients with evidence of deterioration (Feighner-positive patients) as in patients without deterioration and was less in patients who had affective disturbance in addition to schizophrenia symptoms. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine-receptor blockade is the only requirement for antipsychotic activity and suggest that the antipsychotic effect occurs in patients with typically schizophrenic illnesses but may be limited to positive symptoms.
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol excretion in acutely schizophrenic patients during a controlled clinical trial of the isomers of flupenthixol
Spontaneous activity and apomorphine stereotypy during and after withdrawal from 3 1/2 months continuous administration of haloperidol: some methodological issues
Differential effects of amphetamine and neuroleptics on negative vs. positive symptoms in schizophrenia
Plasma fluphenazine and prolactin levels in schizophrenic patients during treatment with low and high doses of fluphenazine enanthate
Serum concentrations of cis(Z)-flupentixol and prolactin in chronic schizophrenic patients treated with flupentixol and cis(Z)-flupentixol decanoate
Pharmacokinetic studies in volunteers of intravenous and oral cis (Z)-flupentixol and intramuscular cis (Z)-flupentixol decanoate in Viscoleo
Repeated treatment with ascorbate or haloperidol, but not clozapine, elevates extracellular ascorbate in the neostriatum of freely moving rats
Lack of apparent antipsychotic effect of the D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH39166 in acutely ill schizophrenic patients
Cognitive-disruptive effects of the psychotomimetic phencyclidine and attenuation by atypical antipsychotic medications in rats
A naturalistic study of grey matter volume increase after early treatment in anti-psychotic naïve, newly diagnosed schizophrenia
Symptom changes in five dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in refractory psychosis
Mutability and relationship between positive and negative symptoms during neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia
Neuroleptic treatment for a substantial proportion of adult life: behavioural sequelae of 9 months haloperidol administration
Regulation of striatal aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: effects of blockade or activation of dopamine receptors
Reduced cholecystokinin-like and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in limbic lobe is associated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia
Clozapine, single photon emission tomography, and the D2 dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of schizophrenia
Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal aspects of treatment with Des-tyr1-gamma-endorphin in schizophrenia
A double-blind study with ceruletide in chronic schizophrenic patients: biochemical and clinical results
Plasma HVA, tardive dyskinesia and psychotic symptoms in long-term drug-free inpatients with schizophrenia
Non-specific neuroleptic isomer effect on calmodulin-stimulated calcium transport in erythrocyte membrane
Prolegomenon to the clinical prerequisite: psychopharmacology and the classification of mental disorders
Lack of effect of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs on glutamate receptor mRNA levels in rat brains
Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: a hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia
Electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral studies of acute haloperidol-induced depolarization block of nigral dopamine neurons
The relationship between clinical and biochemical changes following neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia
The clinical relevance of an auditory attention task (PAT) in a longitudinal study of chronic schizophrenia, with placebo substitution for chlorpromazine
Neuroleptic treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Efficacy problems and methodological difficulties
Experimental reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by pharmacological chemosensitisers
From dopamine to salience to psychosis--linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis
Cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease after long term levodopa administration
Gene expression studies of mRNAs encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NMDAR1, NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B, NMDAR2C, and NMDAR2D following long-term treatment with cis-and trans-flupenthixol as a model for understanding the mode of action of schizophrenia drug treatment
D2 dopamine receptor but not AMPA and kainate glutamate receptor genes show altered expression in response to long term treatment with trans- and cis-flupenthixol in the rat brain
Intravenous chlorpromazine in the emergency department treatment of migraines: a randomized controlled trial
Differences in the EEG profiles of early and late responders to antipsychotic treatment in first-episode, drug-naive psychotic patients
A histochemical demonstration of altered cytochrome oxidase activity in the rat brain by neuroleptics
Response to drugs in schizophrenia: the influence of family history, obstetric complications and ventricular enlargement
Anticholinergic-neuroleptic antagonism in terms of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia: implications for psychobiological subtyping
Neuroendocrine changes in acute schizophrenia as a function of clinical state and neuroleptic medication
Skin conductance responsivity during acute episodes of schizophrenia as a predictor of symptomatic improvement
The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect impairments in the perception and initiation of action
Positive and negative symptoms/syndromes in schizophrenia: reliability and validity of different diagnostic systems
Do positive symptom and negative symptom subtypes of schizophrenia show qualitative differences in language production?
Early striatal hypertrophy in first-episode psychosis within 3 weeks of initiating antipsychotic drug treatment
Piracetam in the treatment of schizophrenia: implications for the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia
Chemoprotection of hematopoietic cells by a mutant P-glycoprotein resistant to a potent chemosensitizer of multidrug-resistant cancers
Gray matter in first-episode schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic drug treatment. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses with sample size weighting
Effects of the dopamine-related drug bromocriptine on event-related potentials and its relation to the law of initial value
Morphological changes in met(5)-enkephalin-immunoreactive synaptic boutons in the rat neostriatum after haloperidol decanoate treatment
Lithium carbonate in chronic schizophrenia--a brief trial of lithium carbonate added to neuroleptics for treatment of resistant schizophrenic patients
Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia
Symptomatic response to antipsychotics differs between recent onset and recurrent chronic schizophrenic patients
Immediate and delayed effects of risperidone on cerebral metabolism in neuroleptic naïve schizophrenic patients: correlations with symptom change
Comparison between the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Manchester Scale for the rating of schizophrenic symptoms
Intravenous chlorpromazine in the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache: a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study
Note on an abnormality of the operator for the structural gene of the dopamine D1 receptor as a possible partial cause of schizophrenia
The effects of remoxipride and chlorpromazine on eye movements and psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers
Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology
Merck, Sharp & Dohme Prize for Young Psychopharmacologists: A history of frontal and temporal lobe aspects of the neuropharmacology of schizophrenia
Serum haloperidol levels and clinical response in chronic, treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients
Differential effects of high-dose amisulpride versus flupentixol on latent dimensions of depressive and negative symptomatology in acute schizophrenia: an evaluation using confirmatory factor analysis
Subchronic haloperidol downregulates dopamine synthesis capacity in the brain of schizophrenic patients in vivo
Reduced cholecystokinin levels in the limbic lobe in schizophrenia. A marker for pathology underlying the defect state?
The Scottish First Episode Schizophrenia Study. IV. Psychiatric and social impact on relatives. The Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group
Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in acute schizophrenia: relationship to symptomatology and neuroleptic medication
Clinical significance of plasma drug and prolactin levels during acute chlorpromazine treatment: a replication study
Contrasting subcellular responses to monohydroxytamoxifen and oestradiol benzoate in the immature rat uterus [proceedings
Stereospecificity of the dopamine receptor mediating the growth hormone response to apomorphine in man. Short communication
Drug-related and illness-related factors in the outcome of chlorpromazine treatment: testing a model
D2 dopamine receptor binding in the basal ganglia of antipsychotic-free schizophrenic patients. An 123I-IBZM single photon emission computerised tomography study
Ritanserin, a selective 5-HT2/1C antagonist, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A placebo-controlled double-blind trial
A dopaminergic mechanism of antipsychotic drug efficacy, failure, and failure reversal: the role of the dopamine transporter
Schizophrenia in a North Swedish geographical isolate, 1900--1977. Epidemiology, genetics and biochemistry
The Core Deficit of Classical Schizophrenia: Implications for Predicting the Functional Outcome of Psychotic Illness and Developing Effective Treatments
Motor-related oscillatory activity in schizophrenia according to phase of illness and clinical symptom severity
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