Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading intestinal emergency in premature infants. The underlying etiology of NEC remains elusive, but hypoxic conditions and early enteral feeding are consistently implicated as the main risk factors in the pathogenesis of NEC. We postulate that nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role as a molecular signaling "hub" in the generation of gut barrier failure in NEC. Clinical studies suggest that inflammatory cytokines and excessive NO production may contribute to the pathogenesis of NEC. One of the major challenges in defining the critical signaling pathways that lead to the development of NEC is the lack of specific biochemical markers that consistently delineate the early stages of NEC. Intestinal pathology and molecular markers derived from late-stage NEC represent end-stage findings and thus provide little insight into the early events that led to intestinal inflammation. Such markers may not represent viable therapeutic targets for the treatment or prevention of NEC. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to identify the patients at risk for NEC and define the clinically relevant molecules that characterize the early stages of NEC. This review will examine the mechanisms of NO-mediated gut b...Continue Reading
Peroxynitrite-induced membrane lipid peroxidation: the cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide
Role of nitric oxide in maintaining vascular integrity in endotoxin-induced acute intestinal damage in the rat
Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones
Altered responses to bacterial infection and endotoxic shock in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase
Peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells: evidence for an apoptotic mechanism differentially modulated by neurotrophic factors
Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite exert distinct effects on mitochondrial respiration which are differentially blocked by glutathione or glucose
Peroxynitrite disables the tyrosine phosphorylation regulatory mechanism: Lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase fails to phosphorylate nitrated cdc2(6-20)NH2 peptide
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in rat digestive tissues after endotoxin and its role in intestinal mucosal injury
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine in colonic epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease
Inhibition of nitric oxide with aminoguanidine reduces bacterial translocation after endotoxin challenge in vivo
The role of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis
Inflammatory cytokine mRNAs in surgical specimens of necrotizing enterocolitis and normal newborn intestine
Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase ameliorates endotoxin-induced gut mucosal barrier dysfunction in rats
Bacterial translocation is inhibited in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice after endotoxin challenge but not in a model of bacterial overgrowth
Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade
Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene polymorphism influences TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cell culture in healthy humans
The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis
Genotypic variation in the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene: association with transforming growth factor-beta1 production, fibrotic lung disease, and graft fibrosis after lung transplantation
Genotyping for polymorphisms in interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha genes: a technical report
The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in mucosal protection, adaptation to injury, and ulcer healing: involvement of EGF-R signal transduction pathways
Specific inhibition of iNOS decreases the intestinal mucosal peroxynitrite level and improves the barrier function after thermal injury
Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) and protection against peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity by zinc chelation
Nitric oxide inhibits thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in human platelets.
Dietary L-arginine supplementation improves the intestinal development through increasing mucosal Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signals in intra-uterine growth retarded piglets
Bacterium-generated nitric oxide hijacks host tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling and modulates the host cell cycle in vitro.
The human milk oligosaccharide disialyllacto-N-tetraose prevents necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats
Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on messenger RNA expression of caveolin-1, NOS, and genes regulating oxidative stress in the terminal ileum of formula-fed neonatal rats
The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.
Erythropoietin protects epithelial cells from excessive autophagy and apoptosis in experimental neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
Altered intestinal microcirculation is the critical event in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis
Dysregulated expression of arginine metabolic enzymes in human intestinal tissues of necrotizing enterocolitis and response of CaCO2 cells to bacterial components
Nutritional modulation of the gut microbiota and immune system in preterm neonates susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis
Trajectory of metabolic derangement in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis should drive timing and technique of surgical intervention
Timing of surgical intervention in necrotizing enterocolitis can be determined by trajectory of metabolic derangement
The role of nitric oxide in intestinal epithelial injury and restitution in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.
Neonatal gut barrier and multiple organ failure: role of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines in sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes enterocyte migration and proliferation in neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis
Characterization of turkey inducible nitric oxide synthase and identification of its expression in the intestinal epithelium following astrovirus infection.
Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in rats with hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury
Association between the p.Thr1406Asn polymorphism of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 gene and necrotizing enterocolitis: A prospective multicenter study
Bacterial colonization stimulates a complex physiological response in the immature human intestinal epithelium.
Nitric oxide inhibits enterocyte migration through activation of RhoA-GTPase in a SHP-2-dependent manner
Generation of epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis and its enhancement on intestinal development and growth of early-weaned mice
Pathogenesis implication for necrotizing enterocolitis prevention in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants
Genome-wide expression profiles of necrotizing enterocolitis versus spontaneous intestinal perforation in human intestinal tissues: dysregulation of functional pathways
The small intestine proteome is changed in preterm pigs developing necrotizing enterocolitis in response to formula feeding
Enteral Feeding Interventions in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Systematic Review of Experimental and Clinical Studies.
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