Sep 17, 2019

Mechanisms of Non-coenzyme Action of Thiamine: Protein Targets and Medical Significance

Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
V A AleshinV I Bunik

Abstract

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a precursor of the well-known coenzyme of central metabolic pathways thiamine diphosphate (ThDP). Highly intense glucose oxidation in the brain requires ThDP-dependent enzymes, which determines the critical significance of thiamine for neuronal functions. However, thiamine can also act through the non-coenzyme mechanisms. The well-known facilitation of acetylcholinergic neurotransmission upon the thiamine and acetylcholine co-release into the synaptic cleft has been supported by the discovery of thiamine triphosphate (ThTP)-dependent phosphorylation of the acetylcholine receptor-associated protein rapsyn, and thiamine interaction with the TAS2R1 receptor, resulting in the activation of synaptic ion currents. The non-coenzyme regulatory binding of thiamine compounds has been demonstrated for the transcriptional regulator p53, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, prion protein PRNP, and a number of key metabolic enzymes that do not use ThDP as a coenzyme. The accumulated data indicate that the molecular mechanisms of the neurotropic action of thiamine are far broader than it has been originally believed, and closely linked to the metabolism of thiamine and its derivatives in animals. The significance of this topi...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Metformin
Research
Synaptic Cleft
Thiamine Deficiency
Brain
Thiaminase II
Nerve Degeneration
Synaptic Transmission
PARP1 protein, human
Cholinergic Receptors

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