The functional inhibitory characteristics of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) candesartan; irbesartan; and losartan and its active metabolite EXP 3174 (EXP) were studied in rabbit aortic strips and rat portal vein preparations in vitro. Moreover, plasma-protein binding was determined, and the binding was high (>98. 5%) for all ARBs. These values were needed to relate the concentrations of the ARBs used in vitro to the nonprotein bound concentrations in clinical use. In both vascular preparations, candesartan caused a marked decrease in the maximal contractile response of the angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration-response curve. Losartan, EXP, and irbesartan caused a rightward parallel shift without any major effects on the maximal response to Ang II. The inhibitory effect of candesartan developed slowly (maximal effect after >30 minutes) and lasted >2 hours despite repeated washing of the vessels. The effect of losartan, irbesartan, and EXP had a faster onset, and most of the inhibitory effect disappeared after washing. The duration of the inhibitory effects of the ARBs were not related to lipophilicity of the compounds. Cooling of the rat portal vein preparations to 4 degrees C before administration of candesa...Continue Reading
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