Dec 4, 2019

Medical Therapies for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

Hypertension
Sverre E KjeldsenFaiez Zannad

Abstract

Current cardiovascular pharmacotherapy targets maladaptive overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which occurs throughout the continuum of cardiovascular disease spanning from hypertension to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Over the past 16 years, 4 prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials using candesartan, perindopril, irbesartan, and spironolactone in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) failed to demonstrate increased efficacy of RAAS blockade added to guideline-directed medical therapy. We reappraise these trials and their weaknesses, which precluded statistically significant findings. Recently, dual-acting RAAS blockade with sacubitril-valsartan relative to stand-alone valsartan failed to improve outcome in the PARAGON-HF trial (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared with Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction). The majority of patients with HFpEF experience hypertension, frequently with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, contributed to by comorbidities such as coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and atrial fibrillation. Contrasting the findings in HFpEF...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations1

References

  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations1

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Spironolactone
Renin and Aldosterone
Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
Atrial Fibrillation
Cardiovascular Diseases
Experience
Aldosterone Antagonists
Irbesartan
Hypertensive Disease

Related Feeds

Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly due to stroke and thromboembolism. Here is the latest research.

Atrial Filbrillation

Atrial fibrillation refers to the abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria. Here is the latest research.

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmias are abnormalities in heart rhythms, which can be either too fast or too slow. They can result from abnormalities of the initiation of an impulse or impulse conduction or a combination of both. Here is the latest research on arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular Diseases: Risk Factors

Cardiovascular disease is a significant health concern. Risk factors include hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Women who are postmenopausal are at an increased risk of heart disease. Here is the latest research for risk factors of cardiovascular disease.