Medullary thyroid carcinoma

Current Treatment Options in Oncology
J F Moley

Abstract

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy that occurs in hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) clinical settings. MTC is present in all patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes. MTCs produce calcitonin, the measurement of which can indicate the presence of tumors in people who are at risk and the effectiveness of therapy in treated patients. Surgical cure is possible in young patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 who undergo preventative thyroidectomy (approximately 50% of patients who are diagnosed with a palpable thyroid mass) and in some patients with recurrent nodal metastatic disease in the neck. Mortality from MTC is caused by tumor invasion of the trachea, great vessels in the neck, or mediastinum or by the effects of distant metastatic disease. Surgery for cervical recurrence can prevent death from tracheal invasion. The role of radiation therapy is not well defined. There is no effective systemic therapy for MTC. Activating mutations in a tyrosine kinase receptor gene (RET) are present in most MTCs, and experience with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other agents in clinical trials is critical for the identification of effective systemic treatment.

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Citations

May 29, 2007·European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging·Rafał CzepczyńskiAlberto Signore
Jul 23, 2013·Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism·Rafael Loch BatistaMalebranche Berardo C Cunha-Neto
Feb 23, 2007·Nature Clinical Practice. Endocrinology & Metabolism·Marinella Messina, Bruce G Robinson
Mar 26, 2008·Pediatric Hematology and Oncology·Soumen Khatua, Laura L Bilodeau
Jun 8, 2004·Endocrine Reviews·Gregory A KaltsasAshley B Grossman
Nov 28, 2013·Annual Review of Medicine·Tobias Carling, Robert Udelsman
Mar 6, 2017·Oncology Reports·Zongping WangYouben Fan
Mar 16, 2005·The American Journal of Surgical Pathology·Veli-Matti WaseniusHeikki Joensuu

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