MEF2D-NR4A1-FAM134B2-mediated reticulophagy contributes to amino acid homeostasis.

Autophagy
Yuji ShiozakiMakoto Miyazaki

Abstract

We recently identified FAM134B2, which is an N-terminal truncated reticulophagy receptor highly induced by starvation such as fasting of mice and treatment of mammalian cells with a starvation medium that does not contain amino acids, glucose and growth factors. However, which starvation signal mediates the induction of FAM134B2 is still obscure. In this study, we found that amino acid deficiency (AAD) could mimic the starvation condition to induce FAM134B2 expression. Unexpectedly, EIF2AK4/GCN2-mediated integrated signal response (ISR) and MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) signals, which constitute two major signaling pathways that respond to AAD, did not contribute to AAD-induced FAM134B2 induction. mRNA-seq and siRNA screenings identified two ISR-independent transcription factors, MEF2D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D) and NR4A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1), involved in AAD-induced FAM134B2 expression. AAD induces MEF2D, resulting in the induction of NR4A1, which in turn induces FAM134B2-mediated reticulophagy to maintain intracellular amino acid levels. In conclusion, the MEF2D-NR4A1-FAM134B2 cascade is a critical signal in amino acid homeostasis.

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