MEN1 gene and its mutations: basic and clinical implications

Cancer Science
T TsukadaN Ohkura

Abstract

Heterozygous germline mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene MEN1 are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterized by pituitary, parathyroid, and enteropancreatic tumors. Various mutations have been identified throughout the entire gene region in patients with MEN1 and related disorders. Neither mutation hot spot nor phenotype–genotype correlation has been established in MEN1 although some missense mutations may be specifically associated with a phenotype of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. The gene product menin has been implicated in multiple roles, including gene transcription, maintenance of genomic integrity, and control of cell division and differentiation. These multiple functions are likely to be conferred by association with multiple protein factors. Occurrence of MEN1-causing missense mutations throughout menin also suggests the requirement of multiple binding factors for its full tumor-suppressive activity. The effect of menin depletion is highly tissue specific, but its underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. A DNA test for MEN1 germline mutations is a useful tool for diagnosis of MEN1 although it needs further improvements

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Related Concepts

MEN1 protein, human
Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
Cell Differentiation Process
Cell Division
Diagnosis
DNA
Genes
Genome
Hyperparathyroidism

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