Mendelian randomization: using genes as instruments for making causal inferences in epidemiology

Statistics in Medicine
Deborah A LawlorGeorge Davey Smith

Abstract

Observational epidemiological studies suffer from many potential biases, from confounding and from reverse causation, and this limits their ability to robustly identify causal associations. Several high-profile situations exist in which randomized controlled trials of precisely the same intervention that has been examined in observational studies have produced markedly different findings. In other observational sciences, the use of instrumental variable (IV) approaches has been one approach to strengthening causal inferences in non-experimental situations. The use of germline genetic variants that proxy for environmentally modifiable exposures as instruments for these exposures is one form of IV analysis that can be implemented within observational epidemiological studies. The method has been referred to as 'Mendelian randomization', and can be considered as analogous to randomized controlled trials. This paper outlines Mendelian randomization, draws parallels with IV methods, provides examples of implementation of the approach and discusses limitations of the approach and some methods for dealing with these.

References

May 1, 1992·Statistics in Medicine·A N Phillips, G D Smith
Nov 2, 1991·Lancet·P MainguetC Nagant de Deuxchaisnes
Jan 1, 1992·Human Genetics·H W GoeddeR Lisker
Mar 1, 1997·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·A S Wilkins
Oct 30, 1998·Diabetologia·J C Pickup, M A Crook
Jul 9, 1999·Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research·T Takeshita, K Morimoto
Mar 21, 2000·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·G Gibson, G Wagner
Mar 25, 2000·The New England Journal of Medicine·Paul M RidkerNader Rifai
Jun 16, 2000·Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs·W J GaudermanDuncan C Thomas
Jul 25, 2000·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·S WacholderN Caporaso
Aug 3, 2000·International Journal of Epidemiology·S Greenland
Nov 21, 2000·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·S L Rutherford
Dec 19, 2000·Genetic Epidemiology·David Reich, D B Goldstein
Mar 17, 2001·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Lon R Cardon, J I Bell
Jul 24, 2001·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·A D PradhanPaul M Ridker
Jan 15, 2002·Nature Genetics·N S EnattahI Järvelä
Jan 15, 2002·Genetic Epidemiology·Carrie L PfaffMark D Shriver
May 4, 2002·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Holly K TaborRichard M Myers
Jul 19, 2002·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Jacques E RossouwWriting Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators
Feb 25, 2003·Lancet·Lon R Cardon, L J Palmer
Mar 19, 2003·Lancet·Helen M ColhounGeorge Davey Smith
Apr 12, 2003·International Journal of Epidemiology·George Davey Smith, Shah Ebrahim
Jul 5, 2003·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·D J BrullAroon D Hingorani
Nov 25, 2003·American Journal of Human Genetics·Noah A RosenbergJonathan K Pritchard
Feb 3, 2004·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Barbara M Obermayer-PietschWilfried Renner
Feb 21, 2004·QJM : Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians·George Davey SmithShah Ebrahim
Mar 5, 2004·American Journal of Human Genetics·Stephen WoodingDennis Drayna
Mar 31, 2004·Nature Genetics·Matthew L FreedmanDavid Altshuler
Apr 13, 2004·International Journal of Epidemiology·Duncan C Thomas, David V Conti
Apr 13, 2004·International Journal of Epidemiology·George Davey Smith, Shah Ebrahim
May 29, 2004·International Journal of Epidemiology·Jan P Vandenbroucke
Jun 24, 2004·BMJ : British Medical Journal·R DollI Sutherland
Jul 17, 2004·International Journal of Epidemiology·Bernard KeavneyInternational Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) Collaborators
Aug 24, 2004·American Journal of Epidemiology·Cosetta MinelliKeith R Abrams
Dec 9, 2004·Atherosclerosis·H Jacqueline SukR Y L Zee
Jan 26, 2005·British Journal of Cancer·R DollI Sutherland
Feb 25, 2005·American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics : the Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics·Sarah J LewisGeorge Davey Smith
Feb 26, 2005·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·George Davey SmithShah Ebrahim
May 10, 2005·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·J StatonJohn Eikelboom
May 10, 2005·BMJ : British Medical Journal·George Davey Smith, Shah Ebrahim
May 12, 2005·Statistics in Medicine·John R ThompsonRichard D Riley
May 18, 2005·American Journal of Human Genetics·Christopher S CarlsonAlexander P Reiner
May 25, 2005·Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association·Deborah A LawlorGeorge Davey Smith
Jul 26, 2005·Nature Genetics·Catarina D CampbellJoel N Hirschhorn
Aug 17, 2005·Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology·Sarah J Lewis, George Davey Smith
Aug 27, 2005·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·George Davey SmithJonathan A C Sterne
Sep 21, 2005·Molecular Psychiatry·J W MuntjewerffM den Heijer
Oct 11, 2005·Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology·Parveen BhattiMaria Teresa Landi
Nov 4, 2005·Annals of Human Genetics·D T MillerD J Kwiatkowski
Nov 24, 2005·Nature Reviews. Genetics·François PompanonPierre Taberlet
Dec 6, 2005·Lancet·Aroon D Hingorani, Steve E Humphries
Dec 6, 2005·Lancet·Nicholas J TimpsonGeorge Davey Smith
Mar 28, 2006·International Journal of Epidemiology·Juan P CasasAroon D Hingorani
Apr 15, 2006·Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health·George Davey Smith
Apr 20, 2006·Annals of Epidemiology·Leonelo E BautistaJuan P Casas
Jul 5, 2006·Annals of Internal Medicine·George Davey SmithDeborah A Lawlor
Jul 28, 2006·International Journal of Epidemiology·Bernard KeavneyR Collins
Aug 12, 2006·Current Atherosclerosis Reports·Gordon Lowe, Mark B Pepys
Nov 14, 2006·Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology·Deborah A Lawlor, George Davey Smith
Nov 16, 2006·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Sarah J LewisGeorge Davey Smith
Feb 16, 2007·The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences·Timothy M FraylingDavid Melzer
Mar 23, 2007·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Mika KivimakiOlli T Raitakari
Apr 17, 2007·American Journal of Human Genetics·Michael P EpsteinGlen A Satten

Citations

Dec 21, 2007·Diabetologia·Manjinder S SandhuRuth J F Loos
Aug 8, 2009·Diabetologia·John R PerryTim Frayling
Jan 27, 2011·Diabetologia·Shengxu LiRuth J F Loos
Nov 2, 2012·Calcified Tissue International·Zari DastaniBrent Richards
Aug 7, 2012·Human Genetics·Stijn Vansteelandt, Christoph Lange
May 31, 2012·European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry·Jørn AttermannJørn Olsen
Feb 21, 2013·Current Atherosclerosis Reports·Brian A Ference, Nitin Mahajan
Dec 14, 2011·Current Hypertension Reports·Nicholas J TimpsonGeorge Davey Smith
Sep 21, 2010·Lancet·Jean Dallongeville, Aline Meirhaeghe
Mar 14, 2014·The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology·Pia R Kamstrup, Børge G Nordestgaard
Aug 18, 2010·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·Nic TimpsonGeorge Davey Smith
Nov 10, 2012·Nature Biotechnology·Lucas D Ward, Manolis Kellis
Feb 28, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Roger M HarbordGeorge Davey Smith
Aug 7, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Eric L DingSimin Liu
May 25, 2013·Biodemography and Social Biology·George L Wehby, Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder
Jan 17, 2012·American Journal of Epidemiology·M Maria GlymourJames M Robins
Jul 19, 2013·American Journal of Epidemiology·Brandon L Pierce, Stephen Burgess
May 12, 2012·British Medical Bulletin·Daniel I SwerdlowSteve E Humphries
Jul 24, 2012·Human Molecular Genetics·Carlos CruchagaAlison M Goate
May 9, 2008·International Journal of Epidemiology·Tom PalmerPaul R Burton
Sep 4, 2010·International Journal of Epidemiology·Brandon L PierceTyler J VanderWeele
Mar 19, 2011·International Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessCRP CHD Genetics Collaboration
Apr 22, 2011·International Journal of Epidemiology·Cheol Min ShinIn Sung Song
Apr 18, 2012·International Journal of Epidemiology·Abigail FraserDeborah A Lawlor
Sep 26, 2013·International Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen Burgess, Simon G Thompson
Aug 9, 2013·International Journal of Epidemiology·Hyunseung KangDylan S Small
Oct 26, 2013·International Journal of Epidemiology·H R TaalVincent W V Jaddoe
Oct 26, 2013·International Journal of Epidemiology·Marie-Jo BrionPeter M Visscher
Jan 9, 2010·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Kristine H AllinStig E Bojesen
Feb 3, 2011·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Marianne BennBørge G Nordestgaard
Mar 2, 2010·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Marion VerduijnFriedo W Dekker
Jul 8, 2010·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Marion VerduijnFriedo W Dekker
Apr 18, 2013·Inflammatory Bowel Diseases·Matthew T Palmer, Casey T Weaver
Jun 10, 2011·Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension·Diane Berry, Elina Hyppönen
Jun 11, 2009·Current Opinion in Lipidology·Nadeem Sarwar, Naveed Sattar
Sep 11, 2012·Genes, Brain, and Behavior·Markus JokelaMika Kivimaki
Oct 19, 2013·Science·Graham McVickerJonathan K Pritchard
Nov 7, 2009·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Hannah KuperHarry Hemingway
Mar 14, 2013·Annual Review of Economics·Daniel J BenjaminPaul Lichtenstein
May 1, 2012·Journal of Probability and Statistics·Q Yang, Yuanjia Wang
May 27, 2010·Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology·Simon M CollinRichard M Martin
Feb 27, 2013·Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology·Carolina BonillaRichard M Martin
Jan 29, 2009·Cancer Prevention Research·Arthur SchatzkinGeorge Davey-Smith
Mar 6, 2010·Human Heredity·Brandon L Pierce, Habibul Ahsan
Apr 30, 2011·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Ira J GoldbergRuth McPherson
Jan 11, 2011·Statistical Methods in Medical Research·Tom PalmerJonathan A C Sterne
Dec 27, 2008·BMC Bioinformatics·Kim W CarterL J Palmer
May 29, 2009·BMC Genetics·Joshua MillsteinEric E Schadt
May 13, 2009·Emerging Themes in Epidemiology·Ikechukwu U OgbuanuWilfried Karmaus
Feb 21, 2013·Translational Neurodegeneration·Jianjun GaoHonglei Chen
Nov 13, 2009·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Paul WelshNaveed Sattar
Aug 30, 2008·PLoS Medicine·Nuala A SheehanMartin D Tobin
Jun 26, 2009·PLoS Medicine·Naveed SattarProspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) Study Group
Aug 1, 2012·PloS One·Anna-Maija TolppanenDeborah A Lawlor
Jul 23, 2013·PloS One·Shiu Lun Au YeungC Mary Schooling
Jun 19, 2012·Politics and the Life Sciences : the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences·Jeremy Freese
Jul 10, 2010·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Murielle Bochud, Valentin Rousson
Dec 27, 2013·Asian Journal of Andrology·Linn Berger HåkonsenCecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
Oct 10, 2012·International Journal of Epidemiology·Brandon L Pierce, Tyler J VanderWeele
Nov 19, 2013·Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research·Stephen Burgess, Anders Malarstig
Nov 9, 2012·Clinical Lipidology·Q Qi, Lu Qi
Jan 1, 2014·European Journal of Epidemiology·S K KunutsorHassan Khan
Dec 29, 2013·Current Hypertension Reports·John M FlackPhillip D Levy
Dec 11, 2013·Environmental Health : a Global Access Science Source·Matthew O GribbleAna Navas-Acien
Apr 20, 2014·Current Cardiology Reports·Gad AbrahamMichael Inouye
Mar 26, 2014·Current Diabetes Reports·Abigail Fraser, Deborah A Lawlor
May 27, 2014·American Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessVanessa Didelez
Aug 1, 2013·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·S H BouthoornH Raat
Feb 18, 2014·Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association·Aaron P ThriftThomas L Vaughan
Mar 5, 2014·Netherlands Heart Journal : Monthly Journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation·R A J SmitJ Wouter Jukema
Oct 8, 2011·Inflammation Research : Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]·Nathaly Rius-OttenheimErik J Giltay
Jul 30, 2014·Human Molecular Genetics·George Davey Smith, Gibran Hemani
Jul 21, 2011·Journal of Obesity·Hannah S MumbyKen K Ong
Apr 15, 2014·Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association·Joel H Rubenstein, Elena M Stoffel
Nov 20, 2013·Biological Psychiatry·Marie Kim Wium-AndersenBørge G Nordestgaard
Jul 19, 2014·Twin Research and Human Genetics : the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies·Eco J C de GeusMartine Thomis
Oct 2, 2014·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Aaron P ThriftDavid C Whiteman
Aug 12, 2014·Pediatric Research·Jesper P PetersenHenrik Schrøder
Jun 4, 2014·Current Atherosclerosis Reports·Angela PirilloAlberico L Catapano
Aug 14, 2009·Nutrition Reviews·Lu Qi
Oct 4, 2011·American Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessSimon G Thompson
Apr 16, 2013·American Journal of Epidemiology·C Mary SchoolingB J Cowling
Jul 25, 2013·Current Cardiology Reports·Tanya Keenan, Daniel J Rader
Nov 22, 2011·Health Services & Outcomes Research Methodology·George L WehbyRolv T Lie
Aug 21, 2015·Journal of Clinical Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessJohn R Thompson
Sep 28, 2014·Early Human Development·Rebecca C RichmondCaroline L Relton
May 15, 2015·Diabetes·Christiane L HaaseRuth Frikke-Schmidt
Aug 8, 2015·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·Marie Kim Wium-AndersenBørge G Nordestgaard
Jan 29, 2016·International Journal of Clinical Practice·A Kei, M Elisaf
Jan 30, 2016·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Tanya KeenanD Saleheen
Sep 26, 2013·European Journal of Surgical Oncology : the Journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology·Q TianZ Shao
Jan 23, 2016·Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy·Henning JansenHeribert Schunkert
Dec 24, 2015·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Alastair J Noyce, Mike A Nalls
Nov 11, 2014·Statistics in Medicine·Neil Martin DaviesGeorge Davey Smith
Sep 25, 2012·The Canadian Journal of Cardiology·Kripa RamanGuillaume Paré
Dec 23, 2011·Kidney International·Afshin ParsaPatrick F McArdle
Jun 30, 2012·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Heidi E Jones, C Mary Schooling
Jan 13, 2016·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Barbara KolleritsGerman Diabetes and Dialysis Study Investigators
Oct 26, 2011·Economics and Human Biology·George L WehbyRolv T Lie
Oct 27, 2015·Genetic Epidemiology·Gabriel Cuellar-PartidaStuart MacGregor
Nov 29, 2015·Journal of Health Economics·Stephanie von HinkeFrank Windmeijer
Jul 22, 2014·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Katharina NimptschTobias Pischon
Sep 29, 2015·Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie·Melinda C Mills, Felix C Tropf
Sep 4, 2008·Statistics in Medicine·Tom PalmerMartin D Tobin
Feb 22, 2011·Statistics in Medicine·Jack Bowden, Stijn Vansteelandt
Jun 5, 2013·Statistics in Medicine·Stephen Burgess, CRP CHD Genetics Collaboration
Sep 7, 2013·Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines·Sarah J LewisGeorge Davey Smith
Oct 20, 2012·Statistics in Medicine·Roger M HarbordNuala A Sheehan
Mar 25, 2011·Statistics in Medicine·Stephen Burgess, Simon G Thompson
May 29, 2013·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Isabel González-AramburuJon Infante
Oct 11, 2012·Clinical Endocrinology·Daruneewan WarodomwichitPiyamitr Sritara
Jan 4, 2013·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·William JohnsonEllen W Demerath
Mar 19, 2013·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Zeng ZhangZhen-Lin Zhang
Mar 25, 2015·Epigenetics : Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society·Catherine AllardMarie-France Hivert
Aug 30, 2012·Journal of Internal Medicine·C T Johansen, Robert A Hegele
Jun 19, 2013·Hepatology : Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases·Stefan StenderA Tybjaerg-Hansen
Mar 11, 2015·Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·E ZimmermannThorkild I A Sørensen
May 13, 2009·Genetic Epidemiology·Brandon L Pierce, Habibul Ahsan
Oct 15, 2013·European Journal of Clinical Investigation·C Mary Schooling
Mar 7, 2014·Statistics in Medicine·Michael BaiocchiDylan S Small
Aug 26, 2015·Thorax·Truls S IngebrigtsenBørge G Nordestgaard
Jun 30, 2014·The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology·Shoaib Afzal, Børge G Nordestgaard
Jun 30, 2014·The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology·Karani S VimaleswaranElina Hyppönen
Jan 28, 2014·American Journal of Human Genetics·Michael V HolmesBrendan J Keating
Jun 23, 2015·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Alisa D KjaergaardStig E Bojesen
Apr 12, 2016·European Journal of Epidemiology·Marianne BennBørge G Nordestgaard
May 8, 2015·Statistics in Medicine·Fabiola Del Greco MJohn R Thompson
Jan 23, 2015·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Katharina NimptschTobias Pischon
Dec 17, 2014·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Nicola DalbethTony R Merriman
Sep 27, 2014·Annals of Neurology·Kelly Claire SimonParkinson Study Group
Aug 28, 2014·Journal of Internal Medicine·J KlovaiteBørge G Nordestgaard
Aug 19, 2015·The British Journal of Nutrition·Magdalena MucLotte Lauritzen
Mar 17, 2012·International Journal of Epidemiology·Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith
Apr 6, 2013·Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals·E C OelsnerR Graham Barr
Mar 17, 2015·European Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessEPIC- InterAct Consortium
Apr 29, 2015·Diabetes·Ivonne SluijsInterAct Consortium
Apr 7, 2015·European Heart Journal·Bo Kobberø LauridsenAnne Tybjærg-Hansen
May 24, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·A T NordestgaardBørge G Nordestgaard
Jun 8, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·Jack BowdenStephen Burgess
Dec 1, 2014·International Journal of Epidemiology·Marie Kim Wium-AndersenBørge G Nordestgaard
Mar 18, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·U C WinsløwBørge G Nordestgaard
May 9, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·Anna G C BoefSaskia le Cessie
Jun 19, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessGeorge Davey Smith
Jun 19, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·Helle K M BergholdtChristina Ellervik
Sep 24, 2015·Journal of the American Statistical Association·Wei LinHongzhe Li
Dec 3, 2014·Revista Española De Cardiología·Ignacio Iturrieta-Zuazo, Stefan Walter
Jan 1, 2013·European Economic Review·Stephanie von Hinke Kessler ScholderFrank Windmeijer
Oct 29, 2013·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Pia R KamstrupBørge G Nordestgaard
Dec 26, 2012·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Anette VarboBørge G Nordestgaard
Dec 26, 2012·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Ruth McPherson
Jun 16, 2012·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Marianne BennBørge G Nordestgaard
Feb 25, 2015·Nature·Liming LiangWilliam O C M Cookson
Apr 12, 2015·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Line RodeStig E Bojesen
Mar 19, 2014·Parkinsonism & Related Disorders·Isabel González-AramburuJon Infante
Aug 24, 2010·European Journal of Cancer : Official Journal for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) [and] European Association for Cancer Research (EACR)·Katriina HeikkiläMarkus Perola
Jan 30, 2014·European Heart Journal·Michael V HolmesJuan P Casas
Jan 30, 2015·American Journal of Epidemiology·Stephen Burgess, Simon G Thompson
Sep 30, 2014·Lancet·Timothy M Frayling
May 9, 2016·Current Diabetes Reports·Paul W Franks, Guillaume Paré
Apr 1, 2016·Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD·Qingting HuNaidong Wang
Jun 3, 2016·Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience·Akshay AnandKeshava Prasad
Jun 1, 2016·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Adrián Blanco-GómezJesus Pérez-Losada
May 18, 2016·Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences·Alisa D KjaergaardBørge G Nordestgaard
Jun 21, 2016·Experimental Gerontology·Rita HamadDavid Rehkopf
Jun 19, 2015·PLoS Genetics·Jörg BartelFabian J Theis
Jun 28, 2016·International Journal of Epidemiology·Daniel I SwerdlowAroon D Hingorani
Jul 13, 2016·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Jason Flannick, Jose C Florez
Jul 15, 2016·Nature Reviews. Rheumatology·Philip C RobinsonTony R Merriman
Jul 29, 2016·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Frederikke K LomholtBørge G Nordestgaard
Jul 22, 2016·Human Molecular Genetics·Rebecca C RichmondCaroline L Relton
Aug 16, 2016·International Journal of Cardiology·Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling
Aug 4, 2016·Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN·Peggy SekulaAnna Köttgen
Aug 12, 2016·International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics·Catheryn M YasharLoren Mell
Aug 9, 2016·International Journal of Epidemiology·Line RodeStig E Bojesen
Aug 9, 2016·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Jessica Xin HuSøren Brunak
Aug 27, 2016·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·Sander W van der LaanFolkert W Asselbergs
Sep 4, 2016·International Journal of Epidemiology·Amand F SchmidtUCLEB Consortium
Sep 15, 2016·Genetic Epidemiology·Stephen BurgessSimon G Thompson
Sep 24, 2016·Diabetes·Patrick F McArdle
Oct 13, 2016·BMC Geriatrics·Lewis O J KillinTom C Russ
Sep 17, 2016·European Journal of Clinical Investigation·Nicola VeroneseEmanuele Cereda
Oct 13, 2016·Journal of Hepatology·Jiantao MaMichelle T Long
Aug 26, 2015·PLoS Medicine·Lauren E MokryJ Brent Richards
Jun 29, 2016·PLoS Medicine·Lauren E MokryJ Brent Richards
Dec 23, 2015·PloS One·Tom DuddingNicholas J Timpson
Nov 5, 2016·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·Marie Kim Wium-AndersenBørge G Nordestgaard
Aug 6, 2016·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·Maija-Eliina SequeiraCarol Joinson
Jun 22, 2012·Statistical Methods in Medical Research·Stephen BurgessCRP CHD Genetics Collaboration
Feb 10, 2017·Age and Ageing·Celia L Gregson, Luisa Zuccolo
Jul 3, 2015·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Kevin T NeadRobert A Scott
Feb 17, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Neil Pearce, Debbie A Lawlor
May 20, 2016·Scientific Reports·Masatoshi InoshitaTetsuro Ohmori
Apr 30, 2016·Scientific Reports·Yang XuanDao-Jun Hu
Feb 13, 2016·Scientific Reports·Jie V ZhaoC Mary Schooling
Apr 14, 2016·European Journal of Preventive Cardiology·Janne S TolstrupBørge G Nordestgaard
Apr 26, 2017·Current Opinion in Psychiatry·Amy PeacockRaimondo Bruno
Jun 2, 2017·Nature Reviews. Cardiology·Michael V HolmesGeorge Davey Smith
Jun 7, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Gabriel Cuellar-PartidaStuart MacGregor
Mar 23, 2017·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Maxime M BosRaymond Noordam
Jun 19, 2017·European Journal of Epidemiology·Dipender GillCosetta Minelli
Dec 8, 2009·European Journal of Epidemiology·Alexander Thompson
May 20, 2014·International Journal of Epidemiology·Shiu Lun Au Yeung, C Mary Schooling
Mar 17, 2017·PLoS Genetics·Benjamin W Domingue, Daniel W Belsky
Sep 30, 2016·Journal of Lipid Research·Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Langsted
Jun 13, 2017·Diabetes·Jose C Florez
Jun 15, 2017·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Liv Tybjærg NordestgaardRuth Frikke-Schmidt
Jun 25, 2017·Carcinogenesis·Marco MatejcicPietro Ferrari
Jul 7, 2017·Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology·Jostein Grytten
Aug 19, 2015·Statistical Methods in Medical Research·Stephen BurgessSimon G Thompson
Oct 27, 2017·European Journal of Epidemiology·Helle Kirstine Mørup BergholdtChristina Ellervik
Mar 11, 2016·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·P HaycockGeorge Davey Smith
Dec 13, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Qi GuoPaul D P Pharoah
Apr 1, 2018·Biometrics·Xuran WangDylan S Small
Jan 30, 2018·Lipids in Health and Disease·Renyu DingJiali Han
Mar 14, 2018·British Journal of Cancer·Linden Disney-HoggRichard Houlston
Mar 16, 2018·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Nicolien A van VlietDiana van Heemst
Dec 1, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Jue Sheng OngOvarian Cancer Association Consortium
Nov 23, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Marju Orho-MelanderTanja Stocks
Apr 25, 2018·Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco·Yunus ÇolakBørge G Nordestgaard
Mar 6, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Ningjian WangYingli Lu
May 10, 2017·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·John P ReillyNuala J Meyer
Sep 12, 2017·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Shengfeng WangYonglan Zheng
Oct 11, 2017·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·Nicole WarringtonDeborah A Lawlor
Aug 30, 2017·Statistics in Medicine·John R ThompsonNuala A Sheehan
Nov 6, 2017·Current Diabetes Reports·Jordi MerinoJames B Meigs
Dec 12, 2017·Current Epidemiology Reports·J ZhengGeorge Davey Smith
Jun 10, 2017·Heart·Derrick A Bennett, Michael V Holmes
Jun 9, 2018·Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health·Jonathan M Snowden, Ellen L Tilden
Jan 9, 2018·Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical and Laboratory Research·Adil Harroud, J Brent Richards
Feb 24, 2018·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Upekha E LiyanageStuart MacGregor
Oct 13, 2017·International Journal of Epidemiology·Janine F FelixStephanie J London
Jun 30, 2018·Microcirculation : the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc·Stephen T VernonGemma A Figtree
Mar 15, 2018·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Tom DuddingNicholas J Timpson
Aug 8, 2018·PLoS Medicine·Cosetta MinelliJohn Henderson
Apr 19, 2018·Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health·Nina van den BroekJacqueline M Vink
Jul 18, 2018·Annals of Neurology·Camilla J KobyleckiShoaib Afzal
May 2, 2018·Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics·Stephen BurgessVerena Zuber
Mar 7, 2018·International Journal of Epidemiology·Michelle TaylorMarcus Munafò
Jun 28, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Josephine Lund-NielsenBørge G Nordestgaard
Sep 12, 2018·Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco·Jakob B KodalShoaib Afzal
Jan 28, 2015·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·Alisa D KjaergaardBørge G Nordestgaard
Aug 3, 2017·Journal of the American Heart Association·Shiu Lun Au YeungCatherine Mary Schooling
Dec 21, 2017·Circulation·Mark D BensonRobert E Gerszten
Jul 8, 2017·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Dipender GillCosetta Minelli
Sep 28, 2018·Acta Diabetologica·T I de VriesSMART study group
Apr 25, 2018·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·Junfeng LiuMatthew Traylor
Sep 29, 2018·Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences·Clare L Fasching
Jul 16, 2016·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Despoina ManousakiJ Brent Richards
Mar 19, 2016·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Alisa D KjaergaardBørge G Nordestgaard
Feb 19, 2015·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Pasi SoininenMika Ala-Korpela
Jun 6, 2015·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Stephanie RossGuillaume Paré
Oct 14, 2017·Biostatistics·Stijn VansteelandtTorben Martinussen
Jul 30, 2014·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Esther M OoiBørge G Nordestgaard
Sep 25, 2014·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Humaira RasheedTony R Merriman
Jun 7, 2018·Circulation. Genomic and Precision Medicine·Jie V Zhao, Catherine Mary Schooling
Dec 15, 2017·Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics·Maria Carolina BorgesAroon D Hingorani
Oct 27, 2018·Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco·Mark GibsonJorien L Treur
Dec 12, 2018·International Journal of Epidemiology·Eleanor SandersonJack Bowden
Nov 27, 2018·International Journal of Epidemiology·Xiaoliang WangEmily White
Sep 15, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Maria NethanderClaes Ohlsson
Dec 28, 2018·Twin Research and Human Genetics : the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies·Subhi Arafat, Camelia C Minică
Jan 5, 2019·European Heart Journal·Anne LangstedBørge G Nordestgaard
Sep 22, 2018·American Journal of Epidemiology·Jeremy A Labrecque, Sonja A Swanson
Dec 21, 2018·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Dipender GillMike Laffan
Jan 11, 2019·Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)·Denis Plotnikov, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Jan 13, 2019·Genetic Epidemiology·Lai JiangAlzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Jan 27, 2019·Genes·Julia Romanowska, Anagha Joshi
Feb 21, 2018·Nature Communications·Laura CorbinNicholas J Timpson
Jan 23, 2019·The European Journal of Neuroscience·Uku VainikAlain Dagher
Mar 1, 2019·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Soo Ji LeeJoohon Sung
Mar 2, 2019·Journal of Aging and Health·Aniruddha Das
Dec 20, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Sarah MarottMarianne Benn
Dec 6, 2018·Hepatology : Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases·Fei WangMeian He
Mar 15, 2019·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Kasper M PedersenBørge G Nordestgaard
Nov 3, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Maria Giovanna ScaraleClaudia Menzaghi
Nov 15, 2018·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Tiffanie K JonesNuala J Meyer
Feb 23, 2019·Epidemiology·Neil PearceDeborah A Lawlor
Jan 13, 2018·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Anna L ErikssonClaes Ohlsson
Apr 22, 2019·International Journal of Epidemiology·Shujing XuDavid V Conti
Feb 27, 2015·Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN·Keiko I GreenbergMorgan E Grams
Jun 12, 2013·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Nadia SolovieffJordan W Smoller
Sep 26, 2012·Nature Reviews. Endocrinology·Deborah A LawlorScott M Nelson
Sep 30, 2015·Scientific Reports·Ammarin ThakkinstianBoonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
May 29, 2015·Nature Communications·Omar S AhmadJ Brent Richards
Mar 21, 2015·Nature Communications·Tianxiao HuanJane E Freedman
Jul 9, 2008·Annals of Medicine·George Davey SmithShah Ebrahim
May 18, 2019·Bioinformatics·Wujuan ZhongYun Li
Apr 14, 2019·Evidence-based Mental Health·Panagiota PagoniEvie Stergiakouli
Mar 22, 2019·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Chi ChenYingli Lu
Mar 6, 2012·European Journal of Epidemiology·Gie Ken-DrorFotios Drenos
Jun 29, 2013·Review of Economics of the Household·George L WehbyRolv T Lie
Dec 15, 2012·Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis·Fumihiko TakeuchiNorihiro Kato
Nov 3, 2017·Open Biology·Sophie Hackinger, Eleftheria Zeggini
Jul 24, 2019·International Journal of Epidemiology·Venexia WalkerNeil Martin Davies
Jul 3, 2019·International Journal of Epidemiology·Philipp D Koellinger, Ronald de Vlaming
Aug 2, 2019·International Journal of Epidemiology·Jessica M B ReesStephen Burgess
Jun 7, 2019·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·J ZhengJonathan H Tobias
Apr 12, 2014·Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity·C Mary Schooling
Apr 26, 2014·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Line RodeStig E Bojesen
May 13, 2014·Nature Genetics·So-Youn ShinNicole Soranzo
Jun 3, 2014·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Tim I M KorevaarRobin P Peeters
Dec 3, 2015·Genetic Epidemiology·Fan WangRui Feng
Jun 23, 2019·Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health·Pian-Pian ZhaoHou-Feng Zheng
Aug 29, 2019·Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift·Karla DiazOrdaz, James Carpenter
Aug 31, 2019·Epidemiology·Teri-Louise NorthLaura D Howe
Nov 13, 2019·Annals of Neurology·Dylan M WilliamsAroon D Hingorani
Nov 23, 2019·Circulation. Genomic and Precision Medicine·Elias AllaraINVENT Consortium
Aug 8, 2018·Biostatistics·Carlo BerzuiniLuisa Bernardinelli
Dec 28, 2019·Statistics in Medicine·Yen-Tsung Huang
Dec 18, 2019·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Carol Barahona PonceJusto Lorenzo Bermejo
Sep 6, 2019·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Tiffanie K JonesNuala J Meyer
May 30, 2019·Clinical Chemistry·Mendelian Randomization of Dairy Consumption Working Group, CHARGE consortium
Jun 5, 2016·Clinical Chemistry·Alexander Scheller MadridStig E Bojesen
Apr 22, 2017·Clinical Chemistry·Camilla J KobyleckiBørge G Nordestgaard
Mar 13, 2010·Clinical Chemistry·Patrick M A Sleiman, Struan F A Grant
Sep 24, 2018·Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association·Katrine L RasmussenSune F Nielsen
Aug 5, 2017·Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association·Katrine L RasmussenRuth Frikke-Schmidt
Jan 10, 2020·Journal of the American Heart Association·Yuesong PanY Wang
Jan 10, 2020·Annals of Neurology·Linjing ZhangDongsheng Fan
Dec 27, 2019·Current Opinion in Rheumatology·Nicholas A SumpterTony R Merriman
Jan 18, 2014·Clinical Chemistry·Mette ThomsenBørge G Nordestgaard