Merkel cell polyomavirus and two previously unknown polyomaviruses are chronically shed from human skin

Cell Host & Microbe
Rachel M SchowalterChristopher B Buck


Mounting evidence indicates that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), a circular double-stranded DNA virus, is a causal factor underlying a highly lethal form of skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma. To explore the possibility that MCV and other polyomaviruses commonly inhabit healthy human skin, we developed an improved rolling circle amplification (RCA) technique to isolate circular DNA viral genomes from human skin swabs. Complete MCV genomes were recovered from 40% of healthy adult volunteers tested, providing full-length, apparently wild-type cloned MCV genomes. RCA analysis also identified two previously unknown polyomavirus species that we name human polyomavirus-6 (HPyV6) and HPyV7. Biochemical experiments show that polyomavirus DNA is shed from the skin in the form of assembled virions. A pilot serological study indicates that infection or coinfection with these three skin-tropic polyomaviruses is very common. Thus, at least three polyomavirus species are constituents of the human skin microbiome.


May 27, 2011·Medical Microbiology and Immunology·Diana V PastranaHerbert Pfister
May 13, 2011·Archives of Virology·Reimar JohneLeonard C Norkin
Jun 1, 2011·Virus Genes·Chi-Fang ChangDeching Chang
Mar 23, 2013·Journal of Dermatological Science·Tomoyasu HattoriOsamu Ishikawa
Nov 26, 2013·Seminars in Immunology·James A Sanford, Richard L Gallo
Jul 19, 2011·Modern Pathology : an Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc·Sofia AsioliGianni Bussolati
Jun 20, 2013·Nature Immunology·Breck A Duerkop, Lora V Hooper
Nov 26, 2010·Nature Reviews. Cancer·Patrick S Moore, Yuan Chang
Mar 17, 2011·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Elizabeth A Grice, Julia A Segre
Mar 12, 2013·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·James A DeCaprio, Robert L Garcea
Jul 13, 2013·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Joseph J CarterDenise A Galloway
Jul 8, 2011·Current Opinion in Oncology·Ulrike Wieland, Alexander Kreuter
Jan 12, 2012·Current Opinion in Oncology·David SchramaJürgen C Becker
Mar 1, 2012·Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine·Tuomas JarttiMaria Söderlund-Venermo
May 11, 2012·Science Translational Medicine·Reety AroraPatrick S Moore
Sep 2, 2011·Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI·Raphael P ViscidiDaniela Rivanera
Mar 22, 2013·Journal of Virology·Jingwei ChengJames A DeCaprio
Jun 29, 2012·Journal of Virology·Erica A SiebrasseDavid Wang
Sep 12, 2012·Journal of Virology·Christopher B BuckAlison A McBride
Oct 6, 2011·MBio·Paul G CantalupoJames M Pipas
Mar 19, 2013·Virology Journal·Hitomi FukumotoHarutaka Katano
Jul 30, 2011·PloS One·Huichen FengPatrick S Moore
Aug 4, 2012·PloS One·Rachel M SchowalterChristopher B Buck
Nov 10, 2012·PloS One·Yveta LhotákováJiří Mosinger
Aug 24, 2013·PloS One·Tom Van LoyLieven J Stuyver


Jun 1, 1989·Journal of Medical Virology·W A KnowlesS D Gardner
Mar 1, 1980·Annals of Internal Medicine·T F HoganD L Walker
Feb 21, 2002·Lancet·Eric A EngelsRobert W Miller
Jun 18, 2003·The Journal of General Virology·Annika AntonssonBengt Göran Hansson
Dec 25, 2003·Journal of Virology·Christopher B BuckJohn T Schiller
May 5, 2004·Reviews in Medical Virology·Yoshiaki YogoTadaichi Kitamura
Jun 9, 2004·Virology·Ethel-Michele de VilliersHarald zur Hausen
Mar 9, 2005·Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology·John Doorbar
Nov 9, 2006·Ultrastructural Pathology·Harsharan K SinghVolker Nickeleit
Feb 9, 2007·Journal of Virology·Tobias AllanderBjörn Andersson
Jan 19, 2008·Science·Huichen FengPatrick S Moore
May 2, 2008·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Harald zur Hausen
Sep 25, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Masahiro ShudaYuan Chang
Nov 11, 2008·Virology·Mengxi JiangMichael J Imperiale
Dec 17, 2008·The Journal of Investigative Dermatology·Christopher B Buck, Douglas R Lowy
Mar 28, 2009·PLoS Pathogens·Jaime M KeanRobert L Garcea
Apr 21, 2009·Trends in Microbiology·Reimar JohneHans Stevens
May 7, 2009·Seminars in Cancer Biology·Tina DalianisRobert L Garcea
Jun 6, 2009·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Masahiro ShudaYuan Chang
Jun 6, 2009·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Yanis L TolstovPatrick S Moore
Jun 10, 2009·Seminars in Cancer Biology·Melissa S Maginnis, Walter J Atwood
Jul 10, 2009·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·Myriam LoyoDavid Sidransky
Jul 17, 2009·Journal of Virology·Kimberly D EricksonBilly Tsai
Jul 31, 2009·Journal of Virology·Martyn K WhiteKamel Khalili
Sep 15, 2009·PLoS Pathogens·Diana V PastranaChristopher B Buck
Sep 24, 2009·Journal of Medical Virology·Harutaka KatanoTetsutaro Sata
Sep 25, 2009·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Joseph J CarterDenise A Galloway
Oct 1, 2009·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Ulrike WielandHerbert Pfister
Mar 9, 2010·Virology·Hans-Ulrich BernardEthel-Michele de Villiers

Related Concepts

Malignant Neoplasm of Skin
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Monoclonal antibodies, antineoplastic
Human Papillomavirus
Abnormal Degeneration
Ethanol Measurement
Viral Shedding

Related Feeds

BK Virus Infection

BK virus infection is a significant complication of modern immunosuppression used in kidney transplantation. Discover the latest research on BK virus infection here.

Related Papers

Journal of Virology
Tobias AllanderBjörn Andersson
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vincent FoulongneMichel Segondy
PLoS Pathogens
Jaime M KeanRobert L Garcea
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved