MSCs are an extensively used cell type in clinical trials today. The initial rationale for their clinical testing was based on their differentiation potential. However, the lack of correlation between functional improvement and cell engraftment or differentiation at the site of injury has led to the proposal that MSCs exert their effects not through their differentiation potential but through their secreted product, more specifically, exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle. We propose here that MSC exosomes function as an extension of MSC's biological role as tissue stromal support cells. Like their cell source, MSC exosomes help maintain tissue homeostasis for optimal tissue function. They target housekeeping biological processes that operate ubiquitously in all tissues and are critical in maintaining tissue homeostasis, enabling cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair and regeneration. This hypothesis provides a rationale for the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in a wide spectrum of diseases. Here, we give a brief introduction of the biogenesis of MSC exosomes, review their physiological functions and highlight some of their biochemical potential to illustrate how MSC exosomes...Continue Reading
Proton secretion by stimulated neutrophils. Significance of hexose monophosphate shunt activity as source of electrons and protons for the respiratory burst
Experimental bacterial pneumonia in rabbits: polymorphonuclear leukocyte margination and sequestration in rabbit lungs and quantitation and kinetics of 51Cr-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes in E. coli-induced lung lesions
Differences in the post-translational modification of proteins by polyamines between weakly and highly metastatic B16 melanoma cells
Eradication of established murine tumors using a novel cell-free vaccine: dendritic cell-derived exosomes
Selective enrichment of tetraspan proteins on the internal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes and on exosomes secreted by human B-lymphocytes.
PGF(2alpha), a prostanoid released by endothelial cells activated by hypoxia, is a chemoattractant candidate for neutrophil recruitment
Mesenchymal stem cells suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and prolong skin graft survival in vivo
Human bone marrow stromal cells suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli.
Significant improvement of heart function by cotransplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells and fetal cardiomyocytes in postinfarcted pigs
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the response of naive and memory antigen-specific T cells to their cognate peptide.
Proteomic and biochemical analyses of human B cell-derived exosomes. Potential implications for their function and multivesicular body formation
Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit and stimulate mixed lymphocyte cultures and mitogenic responses independently of the major histocompatibility complex
Suppression of allogeneic T-cell proliferation by human marrow stromal cells: implications in transplantation
Differentiation, cell fusion, and nuclear fusion during ex vivo repair of epithelium by human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma
Hematopoietic stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes: induction of tolerance and islet cell neogenesis
Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the formation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but not activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes or natural killer cells
Marrow-derived stromal cells express genes encoding a broad spectrum of arteriogenic cytokines and promote in vitro and in vivo arteriogenesis through paracrine mechanisms
New directions for protecting the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury: targeting the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK)-pathway
Human bone marrow stromal cells inhibit allogeneic T-cell responses by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan degradation.
Bone-marrow-derived cells for enhancing collateral development: mechanisms, animal data, and initial clinical experiences
Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by mitogens and alloantigens by different mechanisms
Paracrine action accounts for marked protection of ischemic heart by Akt-modified mesenchymal stem cells
A paradoxical role for IFN-gamma in the immune properties of mesenchymal stem cells during viral challenge
Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in postinfarcted rat myocardium: short- and long-term effects
Role for interferon-gamma in the immunomodulatory activity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Evidence supporting paracrine hypothesis for Akt-modified mesenchymal stem cell-mediated cardiac protection and functional improvement
Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement
Mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Akt dramatically repair infarcted myocardium and improve cardiac function despite infrequent cellular fusion or differentiation
Human tumor-released microvesicles promote the differentiation of myeloid cells with transforming growth factor-beta-mediated suppressive activity on T lymphocytes
From the laboratory bench to the patient's bedside: an update on clinical trials with mesenchymal stem cells
Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) is the key Akt-mesenchymal stem cell-released paracrine factor mediating myocardial survival and repair
Multipotent human stromal cells improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction in mice without long-term engraftment
Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells
Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the differentiation of dendritic cells through an interleukin-6-dependent mechanism
Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit proliferation of PBMCs independently of IFNgammaR1 signaling and IDO expression
Exosomes released from infected macrophages contain Mycobacterium avium glycopeptidolipids and are proinflammatory
A role for heme oxygenase-1 in the immunosuppressive effect of adult rat and human mesenchymal stem cells
Peptide-mediated activation of Akt and extracellular regulated kinase signaling prevents lymphocyte apoptosis
Human leukocyte antigen-G5 secretion by human mesenchymal stem cells is required to suppress T lymphocyte and natural killer function and to induce CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T cells
Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit neutrophil apoptosis: a model for neutrophil preservation in the bone marrow niche
Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of steroid-resistant, severe, acute graft-versus-host disease: a phase II study
Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E(2)-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production
Selected Stro-1-enriched bone marrow stromal cells display a major suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation
MSCs inhibit monocyte-derived DC maturation and function by selectively interfering with the generation of immature DCs: central role of MSC-derived prostaglandin E2
Derivation and characterization of human fetal MSCs: an alternative cell source for large-scale production of cardioprotective microparticles
Co-infusion of ex vivo-expanded, parental MSCs prevents life-threatening acute GVHD, but does not reduce the risk of graft failure in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation
Human mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction
Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC
Human bone marrow-derived stem cells acquire epithelial characteristics through fusion with gastrointestinal epithelial cells
Long-term complications, immunologic effects, and role of passage for outcome in mesenchymal stromal cell therapy
Metabolic adaptation to a disruption in oxygen supply during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is underpinned by temporal and quantitative changes in the cardiac proteome
Proteolytic Potential of the MSC Exosome Proteome: Implications for an Exosome-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Proteasome
Gefitinib inhibits the cross-talk between mesenchymal stem cells and prostate cancer cells leading to tumor cell proliferation and inhibition of docetaxel activity
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes increase ATP levels, decrease oxidative stress and activate PI3K/Akt pathway to enhance myocardial viability and prevent adverse remodeling after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
Isolation and characterization of a novel strain of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse umbilical cord: potential application in cell-based therapy
Re: Kobuchi S, Tanaka R, Shintani T, Suzuki R, Tsutsui H, Ohkita M, Ayajiki K, and Matsumura Y (2011) mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect of GABA against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 338:767-774; doi:10.1124/jpet.111.180174
Exosomes from IL-1β stimulated synovial fibroblasts induce osteoarthritic changes in articular chondrocytes
Exosomes from hepatitis C infected patients transmit HCV infection and contain replication competent viral RNA in complex with Ago2-miR122-HSP90
Intrabone marrow injection enhances placental mesenchymal stem cellmediated support of hematopoiesis in mice
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes from different sources selectively promote neuritic outgrowth
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Angiogenesis: Potencial Clinical Application
Systemically Transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells Contribute to Dental Pulp Regeneration in a Chimeric Mouse Model
Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stromal cells: a therapeutic option in respiratory diseases?
Exosomes from the tumor microenvironment as reciprocal regulators that enhance prostate cancer progression
Systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated by human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured under 2D and 3D conditions improves functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury
Mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix scaffold promote muscle regeneration by synergistically regulating macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype
Janus-Faced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Exosomes for the Good and the Bad in Cancer and Autoimmune Disease
Myocardial reparative functions of exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells are enhanced by hypoxia treatment of the cells via transferring microRNA-210 in an nSMase2-dependent way
Acellular therapeutic approach for heart failure: in vitro production of extracellular vesicles from human cardiovascular progenitors
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Alleviates Renal Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy
Hypoxia-Activated Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevents Irradiation-Induced Salivary Hypofunction by Enhanced Paracrine Effect Through Fibroblast Growth Factor 10
New Approach for Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Toward Chondrocyte Cells With Overexpression of MicroRNA-140
Concise Review: Therapeutic Potential of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Secretome and Extracellular Vesicles for Radiation-Induced Lung Injury: Progress and Hypotheses
Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert Pleiotropic Effects on Amyloid-β, Inflammation, and Regeneration: A Spark of Hope for Alzheimer's Disease from Tiny Structures?
Propagation of Pericentral Necrosis During Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury: Evidence for Early Interhepatocyte Communication and Information Exchange
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutics and as a Drug Delivery Platform
Exosomes from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Neuronal Apoptosis and Promote Motor Function Recovery via the Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway
Effect of Human Corneal Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-derived Exosomes on Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing
Exosomes derived from mature chondrocytes facilitate subcutaneous stable ectopic chondrogenesis of cartilage progenitor cells
Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes for Cartilage Regeneration: A Systematic Review of Preclinical In Vivo Studies.
Melatonin-stimulated exosomes enhance the regenerative potential of chronic kidney disease-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells via cellular prion proteins
Advances in the development of gene therapy, noncoding RNA, and exosome-based treatments for tendinopathy
Mesenchymal stem cell‑derived extracellular vesicles promote the in vitro proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells through the activation of the ERK pathway
miR-23a-3p regulated by LncRNA SNHG5 suppresses the chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells via targeting SOX6/SOX5.
Administration of glycyrrhetinic acid reinforces therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome against acute liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Microvesicles Regulate an Internal Pro-Inflammatory Program in Activated Macrophages
BM-MSC-derived exosomes alleviate radiation-induced bone loss by restoring the function of recipient BM-MSCs and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Enhancement of Functionality and Therapeutic Efficacy of Cell-Based Therapy Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Disease
Application of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A concise review
Personal cell therapy for interstitial cystitis with autologous stromal vascular fraction stem cells
A Novel Approach to Deliver Therapeutic Extracellular Vesicles Directly into the Mouse Kidney via Its Arterial Blood Supply.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications.
HSP70-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Suppression Underlies Reversal of Acute Kidney Injury Following Extracellular Vesicle and Focused Ultrasound Combination Therapy.
Extracellular vesicles and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: from misfolded protein vehicles to promising clinical biomarkers.
Chitosan Wound Dressings Incorporating Exosomes Derived from MicroRNA-126-Overexpressing Synovium Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Sustained Release of Exosomes and Heal Full-Thickness Skin Defects in a Diabetic Rat Model
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Myeloid-biased Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitor Expansion via Toll-Like Receptor Engagement.
MicroRNA-100 shuttled by mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes suppresses in vitro angiogenesis through modulating the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling axis in breast cancer cells
Exosomes as potential alternatives to stem cell therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration: in-vitro study on exosomes in interaction of nucleus pulposus cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Exosomes from embryonic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate osteoarthritis through balancing synthesis and degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix
Exosomes: biology, therapeutic potential, and emerging role in musculoskeletal repair and regeneration
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells enhance radiotherapy-induced cell death in tumor and metastatic tumor foci
Systematic Exposition of Mesenchymal Stem Cell for Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Associated Colorectal Cancer
Defining mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived small extracellular vesicles for therapeutic applications
Exosomes Are Comparable to Source Adipose Stem Cells in Fat Graft Retention with Up-Regulating Early Inflammation and Angiogenesis
Comparison of the therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells and their exosomes on monoiodoacetate-induced animal model of osteoarthritis
Exosomes from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Epidermal Barrier Repair by Inducing de Novo Synthesis of Ceramides in Atopic Dermatitis.
Small extracellular vesicles derived from human mesenchymal stromal cells prevent group 2 innate lymphoid cell-dominant allergic airway inflammation through delivery of miR-146a-5p
Small extracellular vesicles derived from human MSCs prevent allergic airway inflammation via immunomodulation on pulmonary macrophages.
The Application of MSCs-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Disorders: Novel Cell-Free Therapeutic Strategy
Schwann cells secrete extracellular vesicles to promote and maintain the proliferation and multipotency of hDPCs
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Suppresses iNOS Expression and Ameliorates Neural Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Mice
A potent immunomodulatory role of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells in preventing cGVHD
Potential and Therapeutic Efficacy of Cell-based Therapy Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Acute/chronic Kidney Disease
Pulsed focused ultrasound enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles in acute kidney injury
ALS Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Approaches: The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Extracellular Vesicles
Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles and their Potential to Contribute to the Repair of Damaged CNS Cells
ASC-Exosomes Ameliorate the Disease Progression in SOD1(G93A) Murine Model Underlining Their Potential Therapeutic Use in Human ALS.
Pro inflammatory stimuli enhance the immunosuppressive functions of adipose mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes
Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells inhibit vein graft intimal hyperplasia and accelerate reendothelialization by enhancing endothelial function
Exosomes of Antler Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Rats through Inhibiting the TLR2/TLR4 Signaling Pathway
Composite cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: crosstalk between different types of MSCs in cell sheet facilitates complex periodontal-like tissue regeneration
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells reverse EMT via TGF-β1/Smad pathway and promote repair of damaged endometrium
Articular chondrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles promote cartilage differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by activation of autophagy
Intranasal administration of small extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
miR-101-loaded exosomes secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells requires the FBXW7/HIF1α/FOXP3 axis, facilitating osteogenic differentiation.
Bone mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles promote the repair of intervertebral disc degeneration by transferring microRNA-199a.
Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Enhanced When Norcantharidin Is Encapsulated in Exosomes Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Role of microRNA-335 carried by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles in bone fracture recovery.
Bone mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles promote TRAIL-related apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the delivery of microRNA-20a-3p.
Kinematic Changes in a Mouse Model of Penetrating Hippocampal Injury and Their Recovery After Intranasal Administration of Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes: Biological Function and Their Therapeutic Potential in Radiation Damage.
Systemic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Reduce Myocardial Infarct Size: Characterization With MRI in a Porcine Model
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Lung Diseases: Current Status and Perspectives.
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles as cell-free therapy: Perspectives in periodontal regeneration.
Bioactive factors for cartilage repair and regeneration: Improving delivery, retention, and activity
Comparisons of Extracellular Vesicles from Human Epidural Fat-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Fibroblast Cells.
A feasible method for the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from menstrual blood and their exosomes
Transfer of lncRNA UCA1 by hUCMSCs-derived exosomes protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through impairing miR-143-targeted degradation of Bcl-2.
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