Apr 28, 2020

Metabolism and interactions of antileprosy drugs

Biochemical Pharmacology
Joseph George

Abstract

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused my Mycobacterium leprae that primarily affects peripheral nervous system and extremities and is prevalent in tropical countries. Treatment for leprosy with multidrug regimens is very effective compared to monotherapy especially in multibacillary cases. The three major antileprosy drugs currently in use are 4, 4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS, dapsone), rifampicin, and clofazimine. During multidrug therapy, the potent antibiotic rifampicin induces the metabolism of dapsone, which results in decreased plasma half-life of dapsone and its metabolites. Furthermore, rifampicin induces its own metabolism and decreases its half-life during monotherapy. Rifampicin upregulates several hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) family that in turn induce the metabolism of dapsone. Clofazimine lacks significant induction of any drug-metabolizing enzyme including CYP family and does not interact with dapsone metabolism. Rifampicin does not induce clofazimine metabolism during combination treatment. Administration of dapsone in the acetylated form (acedapsone) can release the drug slowly into circulation up to 75 days and could be useful for the effective treat...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Leprosy
Dapsone
Mycobacterium leprae (bacteria)
Acetylation
Plasma
CYP3A4
Chronic Infectious Disease
Treatment Protocols
Metabolite
Metabolism

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