PMID: 3841053Oct 1, 1985Paper

Methodological issues in modeling the relationship between low-level lead exposure and infant development: examples from the Boston Lead Study

Environmental Research
David C BellingerE Allred

Abstract

This paper addresses several methodological issues relevant to an assessment of the association between low-level lead exposure and early development. In particular, we discuss methods for choosing, from a large pool of candidates, the covariates to control when estimating this association. We examine the issue of confounding and explain why adjusting increased, rather than decreased, the estimate of the association between blood lead level and development at 6 months of age in our sample. A step-by-step description of our strategy for model building is presented. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of the findings by showing that the magnitude and standard error of the estimated lead effect is not affected appreciably by the method of selecting covariates to be controlled for or by the characterization of lead as a continuous, ordinal, or dichotomous variable. Although these issues arose in the course of analyses of data collected by the Boston lead study (D. Bellinger, H. Needleman, A. Leviton, C. Waternaux, M. Rabinowitz, and M. Nichols (1984), Neurobehav. Tox. Teratol., 6, 387-402), they apply to other current prospective lead studies as well.

References

Dec 1, 1978·International Journal of Epidemiology·L G Dales, H K Ury
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Jan 1, 1983·International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health·G WinnekeW Janke
Jun 1, 1982·American Journal of Diseases of Children·T J HuntK W Seaton
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Citations

Jul 1, 1994·Medicinal Research Reviews·I A al-Saleh
Jan 12, 2012·Biological Trace Element Research·Rajendra Prasad ParajuliChiho Watanabe
Aug 22, 1994·The Science of the Total Environment·L GerhardssonS Skerfving
May 1, 1987·Neurotoxicology and Teratology·C B ErnhartA W Wolf
Nov 1, 1988·Neurotoxicology and Teratology·D BellingerM Rabinowitz
Nov 1, 2003·Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists·H L Needleman, D Bellinger
Nov 1, 1990·Archives of Environmental Health·C B Ernhart, T Greene
Mar 25, 2016·International Journal of Environmental Health Research·Ian Harold Wilson, Simon Barton Wilson
Mar 1, 1988·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·H S BrownL Tatelbaum
Jan 1, 1986·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·A P StreissguthD C Martin
Jan 30, 2008·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·David Gee
Apr 9, 2019·Environmental Health Perspectives·Joel D Kaufman, Cynthia L Curl
Oct 1, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine
Feb 10, 2007·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·David C Bellinger
Apr 23, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine·D BellingerM Rabinowitz

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