Methods to detect infectious human enteric viruses in environmental water samples.

International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Ibrahim Ahmed HamzaMichael Wilhelm


Currently, a wide range of analytical methods is available for virus detection in environmental water samples. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) have the highest sensitivity and specificity to investigate virus contamination in water, so they are the most commonly used in environmental virology. Despite great sensitivity of PCR, the main limitation is the lack of the correlation between the detected viral genome and viral infectivity, which limits conclusions regarding the significance for public health. To provide information about the infectivity of the detected viruses, cultivation on animal cell culture is the gold standard. However, cell culture infectivity assays are laborious, time consuming and costly. Also, not all viruses are able to produce cytopathic effect and viruses such as human noroviruses have no available cell line for propagation. In this brief review, we present a summary and critical evaluation of different approaches that have been recently proposed to overcome limitations of the traditional cell culture assay and PCR assay such as integrated cell culture-PCR, detection of genome integrity, detection of capsid integrity, and measurement of oxid...Continue Reading


Jan 1, 1979·Infection·G G FrösnerJ J Alexander
Oct 8, 1998·Journal of Virological Methods·C R BarardiK L Williams
Oct 24, 1998·Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology·T W KokL Payne
May 2, 2000·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·F BlackmerI L Pepper
Feb 20, 2002·Journal of Applied Microbiology·A P Wyn-Jones, J Sellwood
May 25, 2002·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Delia BocciaFranco Maria Ruggeri
Sep 27, 2002·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Jun Wen LiFu Huan Chao
Nov 28, 2002·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Stefania ManzaraGiovanni Fadda
Jan 7, 2003·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Suphachai Nuanualsuwan, Dean O Cliver
Jan 18, 2003·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Michael D BraidChristopher L Kitts
Jan 29, 2003·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Alicia D AndersonRoger I Glass
Apr 15, 2003·Nature Medicine·Lisa LindesmithRalph Baric
Aug 12, 2003·International Journal of Environmental Health Research·M A Ali, T M K Abdel-Dayem
Dec 9, 2003·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Gwangpyo KoMark D Sobsey
Feb 10, 2004·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Christian J P A HoebeYvonne T H P van Duynhoven
Aug 6, 2004·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Erwin DuizerMarion Koopmans
Feb 5, 2005·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Knut RudiAskild L Holck
Apr 9, 2005·Epidemiology and Infection·A M HauriE Schreier
May 18, 2005·Journal of Virological Methods·Hilary A BrooksArun K Dhar
Jul 28, 2005·Water Research·Gwangpyo KoMark D Sobsey
Aug 25, 2005·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Tobias AllanderBjörn Andersson
Nov 5, 2005·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Khaled H Abd el-GalilAshok Mulchandani
Nov 5, 2005·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Samuel Choi, Sunny C Jiang

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Apr 25, 2012·Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry·E M Hartmann, R U Halden
Apr 6, 2013·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Leslie OgorzalyIsabelle Bertrand
Oct 30, 2012·The Journal of Microbiology·Ju-Mi KimGwangPyo Ko
Feb 16, 2013·Food and Environmental Virology·Andréia Dalla VecchiaFernando R Spilki
Sep 17, 2013·PloS One·Sarah L Warnes, C William Keevil
Mar 17, 2015·International Journal of Food Microbiology·Catherine Hennechart-ColletteSylvie Perelle
Apr 24, 2015·Viruses·Fanny BaliquePhilippe Colson
Jan 9, 2016·Food and Environmental Virology·Gislaine FongaroDavid Rodríguez-Lázaro
Jun 7, 2015·The Science of the Total Environment·Hugo Delleon SilvaMarco Tulio Antonio Garcia-Zapata
Dec 19, 2012·Current Opinion in Virology·Eva Theres Gensberger, Tanja Kostić
Mar 24, 2012·Current Opinion in Virology·John L MokiliBas E Dutilh
Mar 10, 2015·International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health·Mats LeifelsIbrahim Ahmed Hamza
Mar 18, 2016·Environment International·Daisuke SanoHiroyuki Katayama
Sep 21, 2015·The Science of the Total Environment·Chen-Xi SunKarina Yew-Hoong Gin
Aug 21, 2012·Critical Reviews in Microbiology·Angus KnightLee-Ann Jaykus
Jan 21, 2014·Current Opinion in Virology·Sophie ButotLeen Baert
Feb 26, 2014·The Science of the Total Environment·G FongaroC R M Barardi
Feb 28, 2015·International Journal of Food Microbiology·L MorenoG Sánchez
Oct 31, 2016·International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health·G FongaroC R M Barardi
Oct 23, 2016·Journal of Virological Methods·Nicole L McLellanMarc B Habash
Oct 28, 2017·Journal of Applied Microbiology·D SanoS Okabe
Feb 15, 2015·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Daisuke SanoSatoshi Okabe
Sep 28, 2014·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Satoshi IshiiSatoshi Okabe
Sep 24, 2018·Journal of Applied Microbiology·C García-AljaroF Lucena
Dec 8, 2017·Journal of Water and Health·Raquel A Villamizar-GallardoOscar Orlando Ortíz
Oct 3, 2018·Journal of Environmental Quality·F López-GálvezAna Allende
Feb 25, 2017·Food and Environmental Virology·Hazem HamzaIbrahim Ahmed Hamza
Mar 7, 2017·Frontiers in Microbiology·David F Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P G Koopmans
Apr 1, 2014·Clean : Soil, Air, Water·Atheesha GaneshMoganavelli Singh
Jan 1, 2017·Re/views in Environmental Science and Bio/technology·Guy-Alain Junter, Laurent Lebrun
Nov 15, 2018·Food and Environmental Virology·Laetitia KaasJérémie Langlet
Jul 18, 2018·Polish Journal of Microbiology·Agnieszka FigasBogumiła Litwińska

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned

reverse-transcription PCR
fluorescence resonance
fluorescence-activated cell-sorting
environmental stresses

Software Mentioned


Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.