No matter the cause of diabetes, the result is always hyperglycaemia. This excess glucose metabolism drives several damage pathways and raises concentrations of the reactive dicarbonyl, methylglyoxal (MG). MG can modify the structure and function of target molecules by forming advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that act through their receptor (RAGE) to perpetuate vascular and neuronal injury responsible for long-term complications of diabetes. Diabetes patients also suffer lower resistance to many common infections, although the cause(s) for this lower resistance remains elusive. Here, we review recent evidence concerning immune suppression in diabetes and discuss the effects of MG on components of the immune system. We suggest that MG could be a missing link between hyperglycaemia and immune suppression in diabetes.
Methylglyoxal induces G:C to C:G and G:C to T:A transversions in the supF gene on a shuttle vector plasmid replicated in mammalian cells
Cytokine expression in unstimulated PBMC of children with type 1 diabetes and subjects positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies
Reduced expression of Th1-associated chemokine receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes
Advanced glycation end products modulate the maturation and function of peripheral blood dendritic cells
New nuclear functions of the glycolytic protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in mammalian cells
An increased MRP8/14 expression and adhesion, but a decreased migration towards proinflammatory chemokines of type 1 diabetes monocytes
Soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) and selectins (sE selectin, sP selectin, sL selectin) levels in children and adolescents with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes
Role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications: endothelial dysfunction, as a common underlying theme
Methylglyoxal impairs the insulin signaling pathways independently of the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species
Evidence for inactivation of cysteine proteases by reactive carbonyls via glycation of active site thiols
Diabetes-induced decrease of adenosine kinase expression impairs the proliferation potential of diabetic rat T lymphocytes
Diabetes associated cell stress and dysfunction: role of mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial ROS production and activity
Methylglyoxal causes strong weakening of detoxifying capacity and apoptotic cell death in rat hippocampal neurons
Clinical significance of neutrophil apoptosis in peripheral blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Clinical review: The role of advanced glycation end products in progression and complications of diabetes
Cross-talk between GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation: roles in insulin resistance and glucose toxicity
HSP27 regulates cell adhesion and invasion via modulation of focal adhesion kinase and MMP-2 expression
Protein kinase C beta inhibitors: a new therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy and vascular complications
Protein and nucleotide damage by glyoxal and methylglyoxal in physiological systems--role in ageing and disease
Impaired immune responses in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes in mice. Involvement of high glucose
Structural characterization of bisretinoid A2E photocleavage products and implications for age-related macular degeneration
Mutagenesis and repair induced by the DNA advanced glycation end product N2-1-(carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine in human cells
Methylglyoxal modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase-associated functions in EA.hy926 endothelial cells
Serum methylglyoxal level and its association with oxidative stress and disease severity in patients with psoriasis
Characterization of the glyoxalase 1 gene TcGLX1 in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens
Methylglyoxal-induced modifications of significant honeybee proteinous components in manuka honey: Possible therapeutic implications
Characteristic effects of methylglyoxal and its degraded product formate on viability of human histiocytes: a possible detoxification pathway of methylglyoxal
Monitoring nonenzymatic glycation of human immunoglobulin G by methylglyoxal and glyoxal: A spectroscopic study
Novel combinations of Post-Translational Modification (PTM) neo-epitopes provide tissue-specific biochemical markers--are they the cause or the consequence of the disease?
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antibacterial Action of Nanocrystalline Silver and Manuka Honey on the Molecular Alternation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Comprehensive Literature Review
A novel source of methylglyoxal and glyoxal in retina: implications for age-related macular degeneration
Glyoxalase I and aldose reductase gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes
Negative regulatory responses to metabolically triggered inflammation impair renal epithelial immunity in diabetes mellitus.
Heterologous expression of a Glyoxalase I gene from sugarcane confers tolerance to several environmental stresses in bacteria
Methylglyoxal produces more changes in biochemical and biophysical properties of human IgG under high glucose compared to normal glucose level
Effects of preoperative oral single-dose and double-dose carbohydrates on insulin resistance in patients undergoing gastrectomy:a prospective randomized controlled trial.
Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis
ApoE, Lipids & Cholesterol
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