microRNAs in Parkinson's Disease: From Pathogenesis to Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Loredana LeggioNunzio Iraci

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease overall. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) within the midbrain, accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) in Lewy bodies and neurites and excessive neuroinflammation. The neurodegenerative processes typically begin decades before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Therefore, the diagnosis is achievable only when the majority of the relevant DAergic neurons have already died and for that reason available treatments are only palliative at best. The causes and mechanism(s) of this devastating disease are ill-defined but complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are considered major contributors to the etiology of PD. In addition to the role of classical gene mutations in PD, the importance of regulatory elements modulating gene expression has been increasingly recognized. One example is the critical role played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development and homeostasis of distinct populations of neurons within the CNS and, in particular, in the context of PD. Recent...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
transfect
ubiquitination
RNA-seq
chemical modifications

Clinical Trials Mentioned

NCT02580552

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