Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algal protein Channelrhodopsin-2, a rapidly gated light-sensitive cation channel, by using lentiviral gene delivery in combination with high-speed optical switching to photostimulate mammalian neurons. We demonstrate reliable, millisecond-timescale control of neuronal spiking, as well as control of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. This technology allows the use of light to alter neural processing at the level of single spikes and synaptic events, yielding a widely applicable tool for neuroscientists and biomedical engineers.
Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: remote control over genetically designated populations of neurons
A comparison of electrically evoked and channel rhodopsin-evoked postsynaptic potentials in the pharyngeal system of Caenorhabditis elegans
The spatial pattern of light determines the kinetics and modulates backpropagation of optogenetic action potentials
Age-dependent differences in recovered visual responses in Royal College of Surgeons rats transduced with the Channelrhodopsin-2 gene
Using optogenetics to translate the "inflammatory dialogue" between heart and brain in the context of stress
Seeing the brain in action: how multiphoton imaging has advanced our understanding of neuronal function
Improved orange and red Ca²± indicators and photophysical considerations for optogenetic applications
Virally delivered channelrhodopsin-2 safely and effectively restores visual function in multiple mouse models of blindness
BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN)
The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network aims to identify and provide experimental access to the different brain cell types to determine their roles in health and disease. Discover the latest research from researchers in the BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network here.