"Mindful" development of rapid, safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines
Expert Review of Vaccines
Leonard MoiseAnne S De Groot
The world needs a vaccine urgently to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. In the race to a vaccine, several companies and funders are pursuing the most obvious approach, which is to develop antibody-focused vaccines based on the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigen. Emphasis on one approach, while setting aside others, is no small gamble. We believe the urgency of the situation calls for pursuit of multiple paths to a safe and effective vaccine. T cell immunity is essential to resolve SARS-CoV-2 infection and is a critical component of immunity against related coronaviruses. A T cell-directed vaccine may stimulate viral clearance mechanisms that reduce morbidity and obviate the risk of antibody-dependent enhanced disease. Moreover, T cell-directed vaccines can be designed to recall memory against similar viruses and/or to stimulate immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and other highly pathogenic coronaviruses. Mindful development of T cell-epitope driven vaccines may help to protect against the current coronavirus outbreak and pathogenic coronaviruses that are likely to emerge and threaten humanity again.
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is the entry of virus into host cells mediated by antiviral antibodies interacting with Fc or complement receptors. This has been most extensively observed with the dengue virus. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent enhancement here.