Minocycline targets multiple secondary injury mechanisms in traumatic spinal cord injury

Neural Regeneration Research
Robert B Shultz, Yinghui Zhong

Abstract

Minocycline hydrochloride (MH), a semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative, is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that also exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. It has been shown to target multiple secondary injury mechanisms in spinal cord injury, via its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. The secondary injury mechanisms that MH can potentially target include inflammation, free radicals and oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium influx, mitochondrial dysfunction, ischemia, hemorrhage, and edema. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of the multifaceted actions of MH. Its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects are partially achieved through conserved mechanisms such as modulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Additionally, MH can directly inhibit calcium influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, mitochondrial calcium uptake, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) enzymatic activity, and iron toxicity. It can also directly scavenge free radicals. Because it can target many secondary injury me...Continue Reading

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Citations

Sep 21, 2018·Neural Regeneration Research·Mayara Ferraz de MenezesRégis Gemerasca Mestriner
Jul 22, 2020·Journal of Neurotrauma·Ellen Ray Gillespie, Marc Ruitenberg
Apr 18, 2018·Molecular Neurobiology·Nicole OsierJessica Gill
May 20, 2020·Journal of Toxicologic Pathology·Khaled RadadRudolf Moldzio
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Sep 22, 2020·Neural Plasticity·Siddhartha Mondragón-RodríguezFernando Peña-Ortega
Aug 30, 2020·Neural Regeneration Research·Robert B Shultz, Yinghui Zhong
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nuclear translocation

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