miRNAs as biomarkers of orofacial clefts: A systematic review

Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine : Official Publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
Sissy Maria Dos Anjos MendesÂndrea Ribeiro-Dos-Santos

Abstract

Orofacial clefts are facial malformations caused by the improper development of the lips and palate. Many genetic and epigenetic molecules have been involved in the mechanisms of orofacial clefts, one of which are miRNAs. This systematic review aimed to identify miRNAs associated to non-syndromic orofacial clefts in humans. After applying a series of criteria, four studies were selected for analysis. In total, one hundred miRNAs were observed in the literature, of which 57 were reported as upregulated and 43 as downregulated in all orofacial cleft classifications. Moreover, nine miRNAs were differentially expressed only in cleft palate patients, which might suggest distinct regulatory mechanisms for the etiology of cleft lips and palates. We suggest broader population sampling in order to include diverse ethnic groups in the future, as well as analyses toward identifying miRNA target genes and pathways. We highlight the need for experimental validation and of these results to allow further translational approaches and clinical applications.

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Related Concepts

Biological Markers
Study
Biochemical Pathway
Classification
Genes
Ethnic Group
Down-Regulation
Literature
Cleft Lip
Analysis

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