Although awareness of the misuse of medicines is increasing, data on the extent of the problem in the European Union (EU) are lacking. In order to assess the magnitude and severity of the problem, a systematic review of the literature on the misuse of analgesics, opioid substitution medicines and sedatives/hypnotics (with the exception of benzodiazepines) was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Relevant literature was identified between 2001 and 2011. The main groups of misused medicines include opioid analgesics, methadone, buprenorphine and Z-drugs. Regional trends in medicine misuse indicate heterogeneity across the EU with respect to misused medicine types and research activities. Prevalence, high-risk populations and factors contributing to medicine misuse are discussed. The implications of these findings for prevention, treatment, and policy in the EU are considered.
Use of benzodiazepines in the Italian general population: prevalence, pattern of use and risk factors for use
Abuse and dependence potential for the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zopiclone: a review of case reports and epidemiological data
Relationship between prescribing and risk of opiate overdose among drug users in and out of maintenance treatment
French general practitioners' attitudes and prescription patterns toward buprenorphine maintenance treatment: does doctor shopping reflect buprenorphine misuse?
Doping, drugs and drug abuse among adolescents in the State of Thuringia (Germany): prevalence, knowledge and attitudes
The development of a comprehensive risk-management program for prescription opioid analgesics: researched abuse, diversion and addiction-related surveillance (RADARS)
Evidence of zolpidem abuse and dependence: results of the French Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network survey
Prevalence of dependence on prescription drugs and associated mental disorders in a representative sample of general hospital patients
Changes in the prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use and drug use disorders in the United States: 1991-1992 and 2001-2002
Buprenorphine misuse among heroin and amphetamine users in Malmo, Sweden: purpose of misuse and route of administration
Behavioral dependence in patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study in consulting patients using the DSM-IV criteria
Impact of substance dependence and dual diagnosis on the quality of life of heroin users seeking treatment
Monitoring of the misuse of prescription drugs by clients of outpatient addiction treatment centres (PHAR-MON, formerly: Ebis-med). Monitoring of medication misuse
The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study
Prescription pattern of codeine for non-malignant pain: a pharmacoepidemiological study from the Norwegian Prescription Database
Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication: a pharmacoepidemiological pilot study based on community pharmacies in France
Second meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance). Part I: how to evaluate and prevent the abuse and dependence on hypnotic/anxiolytic drugs?
The severity of dependence score correlates with medication overuse in persons with secondary chronic headaches. The Akershus study of chronic headache
Preference for brand-name buprenorphine is related to severity of addiction among outpatients in opioid maintenance treatment
Functional validity of a judgment skills measure within the concept of health literacy for sleeping disorder patients
Acute recreational drug and new psychoactive substance toxicity in Europe: 12 months data collection from the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN)
Misuse of non-prescription codeine containing products: Recommendations for detection and reduction of risk in community pharmacies
Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations
Do we have sufficient information to optimally inform regulatory or other policy decisions about medications containing codeine?
Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone
Non-medical use of prescription opioids and prescription opioid-related harms: why so markedly higher in North America compared to the rest of the world?
Non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) and poor quality of life in the Swedish general population
Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain
Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor mediates the activity of the reward system evoked by morphine-induced conditioned place preference
Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) in the Swedish general population--correlates of analgesic and sedative use
Harmonizing post-market surveillance of prescription drug misuse: a systematic review of observational studies using routinely collected data (2000-2013)
The total sale of prescription drugs with an abuse potential predicts the number of excessive users: a national prescription database study
Changes in non-opioid substitution treatment episodes for pharmaceutical opioids and heroin from 2002 to 2011
Presentations due to acute toxicity of psychoactive substances in an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series
How Resistant to Tampering are Codeine Containing Analgesics on the Market? Assessing the Potential for Opioid Extraction.
Incidence of tramadol shopping behavior in a retrospective cohort of chronic non-cancer pain patients in France
Analysis of residual content of used syringes collected from low threshold facilities in Lausanne, Switzerland
Codeine Shopping Behavior in a Retrospective Cohort of Chronic Noncancer Pain Patients: Incidence and Risk Factors
Which psychoactive substances are used by patients seen in the healthcare system in French overseas territories? Results of the OPPIDUM survey
Self-limiting non-medical pharmaceutical opioid use among young people in Sydney, Australia: An exploratory study
Codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour in the UK and Ireland: an online cross-sectional survey
Polysubstance use and misuse or abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a multi-level analysis of international data
Trends in analgesic consumption in France over the last 10 years and comparison of patterns across Europe
This feed focuses mechanisms underlying addiction and addictive behaviour including heroin and opium dependence, alcohol intoxication, gambling, and tobacco addiction.