Published data suggest that hydrogenosomes, organelles found in diverse anaerobic eukaryotes that make energy and hydrogen, were once mitochondria. As hydrogenosomes generally lack a genome, the conversion is probably one way. The sources of the key hydrogenosomal enzymes, pyruvate : ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and hydrogenase, are not resolved by current phylogenetic analyses, but it is likely that both were present at an early stage of eukaryotic evolution. Once thought to be restricted to a few unusual anaerobic eukaryotes, the proteins are intimately integrated into the fabric of diverse eukaryotic cells, where they are targeted to different cell compartments, and not just hydrogenosomes. There is no evidence supporting the view that PFO and hydrogenase originated from the mitochondrial endosymbiont, as posited by the hydrogen hypothesis for eukaryogenesis. Other organelles derived from mitochondria have now been described in anaerobic and parasitic microbial eukaryotes, including species that were once thought to have diverged before the mitochondrial symbiosis. It thus seems possible that all eukaryotes may eventually be shown to contain an organelle of mitochondrial ancestry, to which different types of biochemistry ...Continue Reading
Compartmentation of enzymes in the rabbit parotid salivary gland. A study by enzyme histochemical, tissue fractionation and morphometric techniques
Relationship between mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase and a bacterial NAD-reducing hydrogenase
The compartmentation of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in rat kidney and liver and its significance to renal and hepatic metabolism
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Hydrogenosomes in a mixed isolate of Isotricha prostoma and Isotricha intestinalis from ovine rumen contents
Two divergent MET10 genes, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, encode the alpha subunit of sulfite reductase and specify potential binding sites for FAD and NADPH
Induction, localization and metal content of hydrogenase in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
The use of small subunit rRNA sequences to unravel the relationships between anaerobic ciliates and their methanogen endosymbionts
Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of pyruvate and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Pyrococcus furiosus and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Thermotoga maritima
Identification and characterization of [Fe]-hydrogenases in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis
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scsB, a cDNA encoding the hydrogenosomal beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis
A mitochondrial-like targeting signal on the hydrogenosomal malic enzyme from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis: support for the hypothesis that hydrogenosomes are modified mitochondria
Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica
Hydrogenosomes in the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis have a double membrane but lack an associated organelle genome
Targeting and translocation of proteins into the hydrogenosome of the protist Trichomonas: similarities with mitochondrial protein import
A mitochondrial-like chaperonin 60 gene in Giardia lamblia: evidence that diplomonads once harbored an endosymbiont related to the progenitor of mitochondria
The hydrogenosomal malic enzyme from the anaerobic fungus neocallimastix frontalis is targeted to mitochondria of the methylotrophic yeast hansenula polymorpha
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The mitosome, a novel organelle related to mitochondria in the amitochondrial parasite Entamoeba histolytica
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A single eubacterial origin of eukaryotic pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase genes: implications for the evolution of anaerobic eukaryotes
Failure to detect DNA in hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis by nick translation and immunomicroscopy
Presence of a member of the mitochondrial carrier family in hydrogenosomes: conservation of membrane-targeting pathways between hydrogenosomes and mitochondria
Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Tetrahymena pyriformis and comparison with Paramecium aurelia mitochondrial DNA
A novel type of iron hydrogenase in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is linked to the photosynthetic electron transport chain
Pyruvate : NADP+ oxidoreductase from the mitochondrion of Euglena gracilis and from the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum: a biochemical relic linking pyruvate metabolism in mitochondriate and amitochondriate protists
Mitochondrial type iron-sulfur cluster assembly in the amitochondriate eukaryotes Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis, as indicated by the phylogeny of IscS
Chaperonin 60 phylogeny provides further evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria among putative early-branching eukaryotes
The analysis of 100 genes supports the grouping of three highly divergent amoebae: Dictyostelium, Entamoeba, and Mastigamoeba
Conserved properties of hydrogenosomal and mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers: a common origin for both organelles
Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes: functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp
Isolation and molecular characterization of the [Fe]-hydrogenase from the unicellular green alga Chlorella fusca
Peculiar behavior of distinct chromosomal DNA elements during and after development in the dicyemid mesozoan Dicyema japonicum
Rubrerythrin and peroxiredoxin: two novel putative peroxidases in the hydrogenosomes of the microaerophilic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis
A Narf-like gene from Cryptosporidium parvum resembles homologues observed in aerobic protists and higher eukaryotes
Analysis of rare genomic changes does not support the unikont-bikont phylogeny and suggests cyanobacterial symbiosis as the point of primary radiation of eukaryotes
High throughput genome-wide survey of small RNAs from the parasitic protists Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis
Phylogenetic distributions and histories of proteins involved in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism in eukaryotes
Hydrogenosome metabolism is the key target for antiparasitic activity of resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis
Current therapeutics, their problems, and sulfur-containing-amino-acid metabolism as a novel target against infections by "amitochondriate" protozoan parasites
BMGE (Block Mapping and Gathering with Entropy): a new software for selection of phylogenetic informative regions from multiple sequence alignments
The iron-sulfur cluster assembly genes iscS and iscU of Entamoeba histolytica were acquired by horizontal gene transfer
Evolution of four gene families with patchy phylogenetic distributions: influx of genes into protist genomes
Multiple origins of endosymbiosis within the Enterobacteriaceae (γ-Proteobacteria): convergence of complex phylogenetic approaches
Informational gene phylogenies do not support a fourth domain of life for nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses
The diversity of dolichol-linked precursors to Asn-linked glycans likely results from secondary loss of sets of glycosyltransferases
Mitochondrial-type assembly of FeS centers in the hydrogenosomes of the amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis
The anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Piromyces sp. E2 produces ethanol via pyruvate:formate lyase and an alcohol dehydrogenase E
Mitochondrial steps of arginine biosynthesis are conserved in the hydrogenosomes of the chytridiomycete Neocallimastix frontalis
The N-terminal sequences of four major hydrogenosomal proteins are not essential for import into hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis
Hydrogenosomal succinyl-CoA synthetase from the rumen-dwelling fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum; an energy-producing enzyme of mitochondrial origin
Beyond retrograde and anterograde signalling: mitochondrial-nuclear interactions as a means for evolutionary adaptation and contemporary disease susceptibility
Methanogenic symbionts of anaerobic ciliates and their contribution to methanogenesis in an anoxic rice field soil
Mitogenomes illuminate the origin and migration patterns of the indigenous people of the Canary Islands
Diversification of giant and large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses predated the origin of modern eukaryotes
Mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica are abundant mitochondrion-related remnant organelles that lack a detectable organellar genome
Trichomonas vaginalis Hmp35, a putative pore-forming hydrogenosomal membrane protein, can form a complex in yeast mitochondria.
Root of the Eukaryota tree as inferred from combined maximum likelihood analyses of multiple molecular sequence data
The Opisthokonta and the Ecdysozoa may not be clades: stronger support for the grouping of plant and animal than for animal and fungi and stronger support for the Coelomata than Ecdysozoa
Phylogenetic Analyses of Sites in Different Protein Structural Environments Result in Distinct Placements of the Metazoan Root
Breath-giving cooperation: critical review of origin of mitochondria hypotheses : Major unanswered questions point to the importance of early ecology
Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: identification and characterization.
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