Mitophagy: An Emerging Target in Ocular Pathology.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jessica M SkeieMark A Greiner

Abstract

Mitochondrial function is essential for the viability of aerobic eukaryotic cells, as mitochondria provide energy through the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), regulate cellular metabolism, provide redox balancing, participate in immune signaling, and can initiate apoptosis. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that participate in a cyclical and ongoing process of regeneration and autophagy (clearance), termed mitophagy specifically for mitochondrial (macro)autophagy. An imbalance in mitochondrial function toward mitochondrial dysfunction can be catastrophic for cells and has been characterized in several common ophthalmic diseases. In this article, we review mitochondrial homeostasis in detail, focusing on the balance of mitochondrial dynamics including the processes of fission and fusion, and provide a description of the mechanisms involved in mitophagy. Furthermore, this article reviews investigations of ocular diseases with impaired mitophagy, including Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, primary open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, as well as several primary mitochondrial diseases with ocular phenotypes that display impaired mitophagy, including mitochondrial encephalop...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Adenosine Triphosphate
Autophagy
Awareness
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Survival
Corneal Dystrophy
Diabetic Retinopathy
Endophthalmitis
Endothelium
Eye

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