Modeling and Simulation of a Fully-glycosylated Full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein in a Viral Membrane.

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Hyeonuk WooWonpil Im


This technical study describes all-atom modeling and simulation of a fully-glycosylated full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in a viral membrane. First, starting from PDB:6VSB and 6VXX, full-length S protein structures were modeled using template-based modeling, de-novo protein structure prediction, and loop modeling techniques in GALAXY modeling suite. Then, using the recently-determined most occupied glycoforms, 22 N-glycans and 1 O-glycan of each monomer were modeled using Glycan Reader & Modeler in CHARMM-GUI. These fully-glycosylated full-length S protein model structures were assessed and further refined against the low-resolution data in their respective experimental maps using ISOLDE. We then used CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder to place the S proteins in a viral membrane and performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. All structures are available in CHARMM-GUI COVID-19 Archive (, so researchers can use these models to carry out innovative and novel modeling and simulation research for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


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