PMID: 11789798Jan 16, 2002Paper

Modified Norwood operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome

The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Davis C DrinkwaterP A Chang


We examined early results in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergoing the Norwood operation with perioperative use of inhaled nitric oxide and application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Between April 1997 and March 2001, 50 infants underwent a modified Norwood operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Mean age at operation was 7.5 +/- 5.7 days, and mean weight was 3.1 +/- 0.5 kg. Five infants had a delayed operation because of sepsis. The mean diameter of the ascending aorta by echocardiography was 3.6 +/- 1.8 mm. Ductal cannulation was used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass in all patients. Mean circulatory arrest time was 39.4 +/- 4.8 minutes. The size of the pulmonary-systemic shunt was 3.0 mm in 6 infants, 3.5 mm in 37, and 4.0 mm in 7. Infants with persistent hypoxia (partial pressure of oxygen < 30 mm Hg) received nitric oxide after they were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated in 8 infants in the pediatric intensive care unit primarily for low cardiac output and in 8 in the operating room because of the inability to separate them from cardiopulmonary bypass. The 30-day mortality rate was 22% (11...Continue Reading


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