The effect of a mixture of alpha-tocopheryl phosphate and di-alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (TPm) was studied in vitro on two cell lines, RASMC (from rat aortic smooth muscle) and human THP-1 monocytic leukaemia cells. Inhibition of cell proliferation by TPm was shown in both lines and occurred with TPm at concentrations lower than those at which alpha-tocopherol was equally inhibitory. TPm led in non-stimulated THP-1 cells to inhibition of CD36 mRNA and protein expression, to inhibition of oxidized low density lipoprotein surface binding and oxLDL uptake. In non-stimulated THP-1 cells, alpha-tocopherol had only very weak effects on these events. Contrary to alpha-tocopherol, TPm was cytotoxic to THP-1 cells at high concentrations. Thus, TPm is able to inhibit the major aggravating elements involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. The higher potency of TPm may be due to a better uptake of the molecule and to its intracellular hydrolysis, providing more alpha-tocopherol to sensitive sites. Alternatively, a direct effect of the phosphate ester on specific cell targets may be considered.
Fat feeding in humans induces lipoproteins of density less than 1.006 that are enriched in apolipoprotein [a] and that cause lipid accumulation in macrophages
Determination of tocopherol and tocopherol acetate concentrations in human feces using high-performance liquid chromatography
Treatment of vitamin E deficiency during chronic childhood cholestasis with oral d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate
Effects of tretinoin tocoferil on gene expression of the extracellular matrix components in human dermal fibroblasts in vitro
Multicenter trial of d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for treatment of vitamin E deficiency in children with chronic cholestasis
Biokinetics in humans of RRR-alpha-tocopherol: the free phenol, acetate ester, and succinate ester forms of vitamin E
Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E
Phosphatidylserine receptors: role of CD36 in binding of anionic phospholipid vesicles to monocytic cells.
Targeted disruption of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in mice
Vitamin E reduces the uptake of oxidized LDL by inhibiting CD36 scavenger receptor expression in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells
Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by alpha-tocopheryl succinate: molecular pathways and structural requirements
Hydrolysis of tocopheryl and retinyl esters by porcine carboxyl ester hydrolase is affected by their carboxylate moiety and bile acids
Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol-6-O-phosphate against ultraviolet B-induced damage in cultured mouse skin
Increased gene expression of scavenger receptors and proinflammatory markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hyperlipidemic males
Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells
On the existence of cellular tocopheryl phosphate, its synthesis, degradation and cellular roles: a hypothesis
Effect of tocopheryl phosphate on key biomarkers of inflammation: Implication in the reduction of atherosclerosis progression in a hypercholesterolaemic rabbit model
Effect of the intake of resveratrol, resveratrol phosphate, and catechin-rich grape seed extract on markers of oxidative stress and gene expression in adult obese subjects
Modulation of phosphorylation of tocopherol and phosphatidylinositol by hTAP1/SEC14L2-mediated lipid exchange
Tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM) as a novel lipid-based transdermal drug delivery carrier: formulation and evaluation
A transient treatment of hippocampal neurons with alpha-tocopherol induces a long-lasting protection against oxidative damage via a genomic action
The effect of tocopheryl phosphates (TPM) on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E deficient mice
Induction of VEGF expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate via PI3Kγ/PKB and hTAP1/SEC14L2-mediated lipid exchange
Structure-Function Relationship Studies In Vitro Reveal Distinct and Specific Effects of Long-Chain Metabolites of Vitamin E
Modulation of cell proliferation and gene expression by alpha-tocopheryl phosphates: relevance to atherosclerosis and inflammation
Alpha-Tocopherol counteracts ritonavir-induced proinflammatory cytokines expression in differentiated THP-1 cells
Phosphorylated troglitazone activates PPARgamma and inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis
Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat?
Antagonistic effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein and alpha-tocopherol on CD36 scavenger receptor expression in monocytes: involvement of protein kinase B and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma
α-Tocopheryl phosphate--an activated form of vitamin E important for angiogenesis and vasculogenesis?
Vitamin E analogs, a novel group of "mitocans," as anticancer agents: the importance of being redox-silent
Structural re-arrangement and peroxidase activation of cytochrome c by anionic analogues of vitamin E, tocopherol succinate and tocopherol phosphate.
Reduction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity by vitamin E in human fibroblasts depends on subjects' age and cell passage number.
Inhibitory effect of PMC, a potent hydrophilic α-tocopherol derivative, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: the pivotal role of PKC-α translocation
Nanoliposomes and Tocosomes as Multifunctional Nanocarriers for the Encapsulation of Nutraceutical and Dietary Molecules
Cardioprotection with alpha-tocopheryl phosphate: amelioration of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is linked with its ability to generate a survival signal through Akt activation.
Methodical Design of Viral Vaccines Based on Avant-Garde Nanocarriers: A Multi-Domain Narrative Review.
The effect of tocopheryl phosphates on atherosclerosis progression in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet
Atherosclerosis Disease Progression
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Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis