Sep 1, 1992

Modulation of host-immune responses by ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): effect of salivary gland extracts on host macrophages and lymphocyte cytokine production

Journal of Medical Entomology
R N Ramachandra, S K Wikel

Abstract

Ixodid tick infestation induces host acquired resistance, which involves immunoglobulin cell-mediated and complement-dependent effector pathways. Ticks have developed countermeasures to modulate host antiarthropod responses. Ixodid-mediated host immunomodulation results in vitro in reduced responsiveness to T-lymphocyte mitogens for cells obtained from infested hosts and impaired antibody responses to a thymic dependent antigen. Salivary gland extracts from days 0-9 of engorgement from unmated, female Dermacentor andersoni Stiles suppressed lymphocyte proliferative responses (LPS) to the T-cell mitogen Con A up to 68.4%, whereas responsiveness to E. coli LPS was enhanced. Cytokines assessed in this study included interleukin-1, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha produced by macrophages, and interleukin-2, IL-2, and gamma interferon (IFN-G) secreted by T-lymphocytes. Salivary gland extracts prepared from tissues obtained on days 0-5 of engorgement suppressed IL-1 elaboration from 89.8% on day 0 through 37.5% on day 6. Levels of TNF were reduced from 40.7 to 94.6% throughout the course of the study. Production of IL-2 was suppressed by 14.1-31.9%, and IFN-G was reduced by 8.7-57.0%. Reduced IL-1 levels during the early p...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Guanosine
Study
IL1A
Immune Response
Biochemical Pathway
Response to Host Immune Response
T-Lymphocyte
IFNG
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Immunoglobulin Activity

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