Modulation of structure and antibacterial and hemolytic activity by ring size in cyclic gramicidin S analogs.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry
L H KondejewskiR S Hodges

Abstract

We have evaluated the effect of ring size of gramicidin S analogs on secondary structure, lipid binding, lipid disruption, antibacterial and hemolytic activity. Cyclic analogs with ring sizes ranging from 4 to 14 residues were designed to maintain the amphipathic character as found in gramicidin S and synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis. The secondary structure of these peptides showed a definite periodicity in beta-sheet content, with rings containing 6, 10, and 14 residues exhibiting beta-sheet structure, and rings containing 8 or 12 residues being largely disordered. Peptides containing 4 or 6 residues did not bind lipopolysaccharide, whereas longer peptides showed a trend of increasing binding affinity for lipopolysaccharide with increasing length. Destabilization of Escherichia coli outer membranes was only observed in peptides containing 10 or more residues. Peptides containing fewer than 10 residues were completely inactive and exhibited no hemolytic activity. The 10-residue peptide showed an activity profile similar to that of gramicidin S itself, with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms as well as yeast, but also showed high hemolytic activity. Differential activities were obtained ...Continue Reading

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