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Antigenic modulation occurs when an antibody cross-links antigens on a cell surface, causing the antigens to become internalized. This can lead to therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies as the expression of the antigen becomes decreased on target cells. Find the latest research on antigenic modulation here.
Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. As the main effector of the humoral immune system, antibodies can neutralize foreign cells. Find the latest research on antibody specificity here.