The aromatic hydrocarbon (AH) (dioxin) receptor was discovered almost 20 years ago and achieved notoriety as the front-line site of action of highly toxic environmental chemicals such as halogenated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. Increasing evidence suggests that the AH receptor plays a key role in proliferation and differentiation of cells exposed to dioxins and, perhaps, to endogenous ligands. Recent cloning of the AH receptor and its indispensable partner, the AH-receptor-nuclear-translocator protein, has opened new opportunities to determine how the AH receptor functions, how it evolved and what its multiple roles might be in normal physiology as well as in toxicology. This review by Allan Okey, David Riddick and Patricia Harper aims to provide a brief history of AH receptor research and gives a timely summary of what is known and what is not known about the structure and function of this fascinating protein.
Chemical cross-linking of the cytosolic and nuclear forms of the Ah receptor in hepatoma cell line 1c1c7
Dioxin-dependent activation of murine Cyp1a-1 gene transcription requires protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation.
Identification of the Ah receptor nuclear translocator protein (Arnt) as a component of the DNA binding form of the Ah receptor
The dioxin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear receptors in search of endogenous ligands
Mechanism of action of aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists: inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression
Detection and characterization of the Ah receptor for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS180
Aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness-receptor agonists generated from indole-3-carbinol in vitro and in vivo: comparisons with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Comparison of the nuclear and cytosolic forms of the Ah receptor from Hepa 1c1c7 cells: charge heterogeneity and ATP binding properties
Downregulation of the Ah receptor in mouse hepatoma cells treated in culture with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Arachidonic acid metabolism by dioxin-induced cytochrome P-450: a new hypothesis on the role of P-450 in dioxin toxicity
Equivalent molecular mass of cytosolic and nuclear forms of Ah receptor from Hepa-1 cells determined by photoaffinity labeling with 2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Multiple DNA-binding factors interact with overlapping specificities at the aryl hydrocarbon response element of the cytochrome P450IA1 gene.
Detection and characterization of [3H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin binding to Ah receptor in a rainbow trout hepatoma cell line
Physicochemical characterization of the nuclear form of Ah receptor from mouse hepatoma cells exposed in culture to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Characterization of xenobiotic responsive elements upstream from the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450c gene: a similarity to glucocorticoid regulatory elements
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: examination of the mechanism of toxicity
Suppression of cytochrome P450 Cyp1a-1 induction in murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and inhibitors of protein kinase C
Ten nucleotide differences, five of which cause amino acid changes, are associated with the Ah receptor locus polymorphism of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice
Photoaffinity labeling of the Ah receptor: phylogenetic survey of diverse vertebrate and invertebrate species
Binding of transformed Ah receptor complex to a dioxin responsive transcriptional enhancer: evidence for two distinct heteromeric DNA-binding forms
The Ah receptor: mediator of the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds
Cross-coupling of signal transduction pathways: the dioxin receptor mediates induction of cytochrome P-450IA1 expression via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces the nuclear translocation of two XRE binding proteins in mice
Role of the Ah receptor and the dioxin-inducible [Ah] gene battery in toxicity, cancer, and signal transduction
TCDD-mediated changes in hepatic epidermal growth factor receptor may be a critical event in the hepatocarcinogenic action of TCDD
Functional identification of LZTS1 as a candidate prostate tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 8p22
Epigenetic inactivation implies independent functions for insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-related protein 1 and the related IGFBPL1 in inhibiting breast cancer phenotypes
Improvement of a stereoselective biocatalytic synthesis by substrate and enzyme engineering: 2-hydroxy-(4'-oxocyclohexyl)acetonitrile as the model
How surface wettability affects the binding, folding, and dynamics of hydrophobic polymers at interfaces
Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism
Developmental expression of two members of a new class of transcription factors: I. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the C57BL/6N mouse embryo
Regulation of CYP1A1 transcription via the metabolism of the tryptophan-derived 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole
Relevance of different biological assays in assessing initiating and promoting properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with respect to carcinogenic potency
Ah receptor role in TCDD toxicity: still some mysteries but no myth--a reply to the commentary by Dr. L.W.D. Weber and Dr. B.U. Stahl
Evidence for the promotion of positive selection of thymocytes by Ah receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Bone resorption by aryl hydrocarbon receptor-expressing osteoclasts is not disturbed by TCDD in short-term cultures
Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity by carbaryl and thiabendazole in transfected human HepG2 and lymphoblastoid cells
Inhibition of liver methionine adenosyltransferase gene expression by 3-methylcolanthrene: protective effect of S-adenosylmethionine
Cytochrome 1A1 induction by primaquine in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells: absence of binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Positive regulation of the rat CYP2B2 phenobarbital response unit by the nuclear receptor hexamer half-site.nuclear factor 1 complex
Coordinate up-regulation of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and modulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase and tryptophan pyrrolase activities in pyridine-treated rats
Hepatic CYP1A levels and EROD activity in English sole: biomonitoring of marine contaminants in Vancouver Harbour
Effects of o,p'-DDT on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 expression in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells
Suppressive effects of estradiol on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated transcriptional activation of murine Cyp1a-1 in mouse hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells
Suppressive effects of alpha-Hederin on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated murine Cyp1a-1 expression in the mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells.
Effect of combined neonatal imprinting by vitamin A, vitamin D3, benzpyrene and allylestrenol on adult rat thymus glucocorticoid and uterine estrogen receptors
Role of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor in the suppression of cytochrome P-450 2C11 by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Effect of the route of benzo[a]pyrene administration on sister chromatid exchange and DNA binding in bone marrow of mice differing with respect to cytochrome P450 1A1 induction
Resveratrol, a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, protects sperm from DNA damage and apoptosis caused by benzo(a)pyrene
Induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity by planar chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cell lines from the rainbow trout pituitary
Isolation of two cytochrome P450 cDNAs, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, from harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in cigarette smoke cause bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model
AH receptor agonist activity in human blood measured with a cell-based bioassay: evidence for naturally occurring AH receptor ligands in vivo
Human response to dioxin: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) molecular structure, function, and dose-response data for enzyme induction indicate an impaired human AhR
Methoxychlor suppresses the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible CYP1A1 expression in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells
Cigarette smoke condensate upregulates the gene and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human fibroblast-like synoviocyte line
Distribution of glutathione S-transferase isoforms in rat liver after induction by beta-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene
Proteasome inhibition induces nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the dioxin receptor in mouse embryo primary fibroblasts in the absence of xenobiotics
Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by methyl yellow and related congeners: structure-activity relationships in halogenated derivatives
Activation of the human Ah receptor by aza-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their halogenated derivatives
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increases mRNA level for interleukin 1 beta in human fibroblast-like synoviocyte line via aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air
Anomalous nonidentity between Salmonella genotoxicants and rodent carcinogens: nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens
Promotion of endometriosis in mice by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls
Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice
Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review
Blockade by SB203580 of Cyp1a1 induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the possible mechanism: possible involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in shuttling of Ah receptor overexpressed in COS-7 cells
Resveratrol, a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, protects lung from DNA damage and apoptosis caused by benzo[a]pyrene
The tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses the single biosynthetic step for tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Ustilago maydis
Hepatic mRNA, microRNA, and miR-34a-target responses in mice after 28 days exposure to doses of benzo(a)pyrene that elicit DNA damage and mutation
Evaluation of various housekeeping genes for their applicability for normalization of mRNA expression in dioxin-treated rats
Divergent mechanisms for loss of Ah-responsiveness in benzo[a]pyrene- and adriamycinR-resistant MCF-7 cells
Identification of dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) in the 5' regions of putative dioxin-inducible genes
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity by indirubin and indigo
Mechanisms of induction of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferase (GST) genes by xenobiotics and pro-inflammatory agents
The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy: comparison of biomarkers for inclusion in epidemiological studies
Measurement of replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique for detection of hepatocyte proliferation
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid epoxygenation in diverse avian orders: regioisomer selectivity and immunochemical comparison of the TCDD-induced P450s to CYP1A4 and 1A5
Nonresponsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin of transforming growth factor beta1 and CYP 1A1 gene expression in rat liver fat-storing cells
Carbaryl induces CYP1A1 gene expression in HepG2 and HaCaT cells but is not a ligand of the human hepatic Ah receptor
Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin stimulates the transcription of CYP1A possibly through AHR and ARNT in the liver of red sea bream Pagrus major
Metabolism-based polycyclic aromatic acetylene inhibition of CYP1B1 in 10T1/2 cells potentiates aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity
TCDD induces CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 in chick liver and kidney and only CYP1A4, an enzyme lacking arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity, in myocardium and vascular endothelium
Interference with growth hormone stimulation of hepatic cytochrome P4502C11 expression in hypophysectomized male rats by 3-methylcholanthrene
Involvement of CREM in CYP1A1 induction through ligand-independent activation pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells
Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: an assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence
Induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 by omeprazole in human HepG2 cells is protein tyrosine kinase-dependent and is not inhibited by alpha-naphthoflavone
Molecular cloning and expression of two novel avian cytochrome P450 1A enzymes induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Suppression by p38 MAP kinase inhibitors (pyridinyl imidazole compounds) of Ah receptor target gene activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the possible mechanism.
Cross-talk between xenobiotic detoxication and other signalling pathways: clinical and toxicological consequences
Degradation of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim homology domain dioxin receptor via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway
Hypoxia-inducible mammalian gene expression analyzed in vivo at a TATA-driven promoter and at an initiator-driven promoter.
Phenobarbital induction of CYP1A1 gene expression in a primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes.
Regulatory interactions among three members of the vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor family: AHR repressor, AHR1, and AHR2
Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).AhR nuclear translocator- and p53-mediated induction of the murine multidrug resistance mdr1 gene by 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene in hepatoma cells
Transcriptional activation by the mouse Ah receptor. Interplay between multiple stimulatory and inhibitory functions.
DNA binding by the heterodimeric Ah receptor. Relationship to dioxin-induced CYP1A1 transcription in vivo.
Dioxin-inducible transactivation in a chromosomal setting. Analysis of the acidic domain of the Ah receptor
Increased AHR Transcripts Correlate With Pro-inflammatory T-Helper Lymphocytes Polarization in Both Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
The 2001 Veylien Henderson Award of the Society of Toxicology of Canada. Positive and negative transcriptional regulation of cytochromes P450 by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Increased expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in allergic nasal mucosa, contributing to chemokine secretion in nasal epithelium
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-associated genes in rat liver: regional coinduction of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 and glutathione transferase Ya
Construction of a reporter yeast strain to detect estrogen receptor signaling through aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation
Species-specific antagonism of Ah receptor action by 2,2',5,5'-tetrachloro- and 2,2',3,3'4,4'-hexachlorobiphenyl
Partial characterization of the human CYP1A1 negatively acting transcription factor and mutational analysis of its cognate DNA recognition sequence.
Dioxin-induced CYP1A1 transcription in vivo: the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor mediates transactivation, enhancer-promoter communication, and changes in chromatin structure.
The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor modulates the Hepa 1c1c7 cell cycle and differentiated state independently of dioxin.
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