Molecular mechanisms of serotonergic action of the HIV-1 antiretroviral efavirenz

Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Dhwanil A DalwadiJohn A Schetz

Abstract

Efavirenz is highly effective at suppressing HIV-1, and the WHO guidelines list it as a component of the first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapies for treatment-naïve patients. Though the pharmacological basis is unclear, efavirenz is commonly associated with a risk for neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) when taken at the prescribed dose. In many patients these NPAEs appear to subside after several weeks of treatment, though long-term studies show that in some patients the NPAEs persist. In a recent study focusing on the abuse potential of efavirenz, its receptor psychopharmacology was reported to include interactions with a number of established molecular targets for known drugs of abuse, and it displayed a prevailing behavioral profile in rodents resembling an LSD-like activity. In this report, we discovered interactions with additional serotonergic targets that may be associated with efavirenz-induced NPAEs. The most robust interactions were with 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptors, with more modest interactions noted for the 5-HT2B receptor and monoamine oxidase A. From a molecular mechanistic perspective, efavirenz acts as a 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonist of Gs-signaling, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C antagonist of Gq-signaling, and a blo...Continue Reading

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Citations

Aug 19, 2016·Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience·Glenn J Treisman, Olivia Soudry
Jun 28, 2018·Pharmacological Reviews·Dhwanil A DalwadiJohn A Schetz
Jun 9, 2020·Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology·E A Nickoloff-BybelJ W Berman
Dec 12, 2020·Brain Communications·Natalia MastIrina A Pikuleva
Jul 2, 2021·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease·Lukas CervenyFrantisek Staud

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