Jul 21, 1998

Molecules, morphology, fossils, and the relationship of angiosperms and Gnetales

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
J A Doyle


Morphological analyses of seed plant phylogeny agree that Gnetales are the closest living relatives of angiosperms, but some studies indicate that both groups are monophyletic, while others indicate that angiosperms are nested within Gnetales. Molecular analyses of several genes agree that both groups are monophyletic, but differ on whether they are related. Conflicts among morphological trees depend on the interpretation of certain characters; when these are analyzed critically, both groups are found to be monophyletic. Conflicts among molecular trees may reflect the rapid Paleozoic radiation of seed plant lines, aggravated by the long branches leading to extant taxa. Trees in which angiosperms are not related to Gnetales conflict more with the stratigraphic record. Even if molecular data resolve the relationships among living seed plant groups, understanding of the origin of angiosperm organs will require integration of fossil taxa, necessarily using morphology.

  • References6
  • Citations38


  • References6
  • Citations38


Mentioned in this Paper

Science of Morphology
High Affinity Immunoglobulin Epsilon Receptor Subunit Beta
Plant Proteins
Evolution, Molecular
Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large Subunit

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