In an effort to discern whether cerebral vascular injuries provoke specific emotional disturbances, 20 consecutively admitted stroke patients were compared with 10 orthopaedic patients. Both groups were examined for functional disabilities (Activities of Daily Living) and for psychiatric symptoms. Reliable and valid instruments, the Hamilton Rating Scale, the Visual Analogue Mood Scale, the Present State Exam, and the Mini-Mental State Exam were employed to display the psychopathology. More of stroke patients than orthopaedic patients were depressed (45% versus 10%) even though the level of functional disability in both groups were the same. Patients with right hemisphere stroke seemed particularly vulnerable and and displayed a syndrome of irritability, loss of interest, and difficulty in concentration, in addition to depression of mood (70% of right hemisphere stroke patients versus 0% left hemisphere stroke patients and 0% orthopaedic patients). We conclude that mood disorder is a more specific complication of stroke than simply a response to the motor disability. We suggest that a controlled trial of antidepressant medication is indicated for patients with this complication.
"Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician
Depression in stroke patients with left and right hemisphere lesions. A study in geriatric rehabilitation in-patients
Neuropathological substrates and structural changes in late-life depression: the impact of vascular burden
The differential effect of right versus left hemispheric cerebral infarction on catecholamines and behavior in the rat
CT scan studies of superficial cerebral regions: frequency and distribution of abnormalities in elderly psychiatric patients
The efficacy of a neuropsychological symptom inventory in the differential diagnosis of neurological, depressed, and normal patients
The effect of early versus late antidepressant treatment on physical impairment associated with poststroke depression: is there a time-related therapeutic window?
Screening instruments for depression and anxiety following stroke: experience in the Perth community stroke study
Exclusion and inclusion criteria for people with aphasia in studies of depression after stroke: a systematic review and future recommendations
Poststroke depression: diagnosis of depression, phenomenology and specificity of depressive symptoms
Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Cognitive Behavioral Rating Scale for stroke patients
The cerebrovascular disease basis of psychiatric syndromes: a model for the power of disease reasoning in psychiatry
The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in post-stroke depression in chronic mild stress-treated ischemic rats
Psychological factors affecting neurological conditions. Depression and stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy
Early depressive symptoms after ischemic stroke are associated with a left lenticulocapsular area lesion
Relationship between age at onset and magnetic resonance image-defined hyperintensities in mood disorders
Lesions of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area enhance depressive-like behavior in rats
Temporal relationships between depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensities in older men and women
Depression after minor stroke: the association with disability and quality of life--a 1-year follow-up study
Electroencephalogram asymmetry during emotionally evocative films and its relation to positive and negative affectivity
Hemispheric specialization for emotional expression: a reexamination of results from intracarotid administration of sodium amobarbital
Effects of treatment for isolated systolic hypertension on cognitive status and depression in the elderly
The Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multiinfarct dementia
A neuropsychosocial perspective of persistent juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior: discussion
The Role of Medical Conditions and Depression in the Functional Outcome of Stroke Survivors: A Review and Pilot Study
Effects of cortical lesion location on psychiatric consultation referral for depressed stroke inpatients
Psychological distress and cognitive impairment in neurological in-patients: its prevalence and its recognition by residents
Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions for management of poststroke depression: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Physical morbidity in elderly psychiatric inpatients: prevalence and possible relations between the major mental disorders and physical illness
Interventions for management of post-stroke depression: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of 23 randomized controlled trials
A two-year longitudinal study of post-stroke mood disorders: dynamic changes in associated variables over the first six months of follow-up
Effective treatment of poststroke depression with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram
Two-year longitudinal study of poststroke mood disorders: diagnosis and outcome at one and two years
Screening for depression in stroke patients: the reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Post-stroke depression: relationships to functional impairment, coping strategies, and rehabilitation outcome
Lesion location and poststroke depression: systematic review of the methodological limitations in the literature
Poststroke Depression: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association
Incidence of post-stroke depression during the first year in a large unselected stroke population determined using a valid standardized rating scale
The SEIQoL-DW is a valid method for measuring individual quality of life in stroke survivors attending a secondary prevention clinic
Persistent depression is a predictor of quality of life in stroke survivors: results from a 5-year follow-up study of a Chinese cohort
Post-stroke depression and functional recovery in a population-based stroke register. The Finnstroke study
BICAO-induced ischaemia caused depressive-like behaviours and caspase-8/-9-dependent brain regional neural cell apoptosis in mice.
Psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards in a general/teaching hospital in Nigeria
Depression in older people with mild stroke, carotid stenosis and peripheral vascular disease: a comparison with healthy controls
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 predicts the functional outcome of stroke patients in convalescent rehabilitation ward.
Dementia of the Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia: a clinical description and diagnostic problems
Neuropsychological Deficits Chronically Developed after Focal Ischemic Stroke and Beneficial Effects of Pharmacological Hypothermia in the Mouse
Dysfunction of anterior insula in the non- affected hemisphere in patients with post- stroke depression: A resting-state fMRI study.
Serum ceramide concentrations are associated with depression in patients after ischemic stroke-A two-center case-controlled study.
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