Feb 13, 1999

Morphology, axonal projection pattern, and response types of tectal neurons in plethodontid salamanders. I: tracer study of projection neurons and their pathways

The Journal of Comparative Neurology
U Dicke


In three salamander species (Hydromantes italicus, H. genei, Plethodon jordani), the tectobulbospinal and tectothalamic pathways and their cells of origin were studied by means of anterograde and retrograde biocytin and tetramethylrhodamine tracing. In plethodontid salamanders, five types of tectal projection neurons were identified. TO1 neurons have widefield dendritic trees that arborize in the layers of retinal afferents and form a neuropil in the superficial layer; axons constitute the crossed tectospinal tract. Dendrites of TO2 cells have the largest dendritic trees that arborize in the intermediate and deep layers of retinal afferents; axons constitute a lateral uncrossed tectospinal tract. TO3 cells have widefield dendritic trees that arborize in the deep layer of retinal afferents and in the layer of tectal efferents; axons constitute a superficial uncrossed tectospinal tract. TO4 cells have slender primary dendrites and small-field dendritic trees that arborize in the intermediate layers of retinal afferents; axons constitute another lateral uncrossed tectospinal tract. TO2, TO3, and TO4 cells also have ascending axons that run to the ventral and dorsal thalamus. TO5 cells have slender primary dendrites and small-field...Continue Reading

  • References28
  • Citations8


  • References28
  • Citations8


Mentioned in this Paper

Biochemical Pathway
Optic Lobe, Human
Tectospinal Tract of Medulla
Science of Morphology
Hydromantes genei

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Coronavirus Protein Structures

Deciphering and comparing the proteins of different coronaviruses forms a basis for understanding SARS-CoV-2 evolution and virus-receptor interactions. This feed follows studies analyzing the structures of coronavirus proteins, thereby revealing potential drug target sites.

DDX3X Syndrome

DDX3X syndrome is caused by a spontaneous mutation at conception that primarily affects girls due to its location on the X-chromosome. DDX3X syndrome has been linked to intellectual disabilities, seizures, autism, low muscle tone, brain abnormalities, and slower physical developments. Here is the latest research.

ALS: Stress Granules

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates within motor neurons. TDP-43 is an ALS-linked protein that is known to regulate splicing and storage of specific mRNAs into stress granules, which have been implicated in formation of ALS protein aggregates. Here is the latest research.

Fusion Oncoproteins in Childhood Cancers

This feed explores the function of fusion oncoproteins in specific childhood cancers, including those from racial/ethnic minority and underserved groups, and to provide preclinical assessment of potential therapeutics and how fusion oncoproteins influence gene expression to perturb normal cellular programs to block lineage differentiation and development

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the highly regulated process that physically separates daughter and mother cells in late mitosis. The mitotic-exit network (MEN), the signalling pathway that drives mitotic exit, directly regulates cytokinesis. Discover the latest research on mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis here.

DNA Replication Origin

DNA replication is initiated as specific gene sequences, called origins, that function to start DNA replication. Pre-replication complexes are assembled at these origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These sequences allow for targeted activation or deactivation of replication. Discover the latest research on DNA replication origins here.