Oct 8, 1994

Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors

BMJ : British Medical Journal
R DollIsabelle Sutherland

Abstract

To assess the hazards associated with long term use of tobacco. Prospective study of mortality in relation to smoking habits assessed in 1951 and again from time to time thereafter, with causes sought of deaths over 40 years (to 1991). Continuation of a study that was last reported after 20 years' follow up (1951-71). 34,439 British male doctors who replied to a postal questionnaire in 1951, of whom 10,000 had died during the first 20 years and another 10,000 have died during the second 20 years. Excess mortality associated with smoking was about twice as extreme during the second half of the study as it had been during the first half. The death rate ratios during 1971-91 (comparing continuing cigarette smokers with life-long non-smokers) were approximately threefold at ages 45-64 and twofold at ages 65-84. The excess mortality was chiefly from diseases that can be caused by smoking. Positive associations with smoking were confirmed for death from cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, pharynx, larynx, lung, pancreas, and bladder; from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases; from vascular diseases; from peptic ulcer; and (perhaps because of confounding by personality and alcohol use) from cirrhosis, sui...Continue Reading

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  • Citations886

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Neoplasms
Survival Analysis
Vascular Diseases
Parkinson Disease
Cause of Death
Fibrosis
Decline, Mortality
Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease
Cigar smoker

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