Oct 1, 1975

Mosquito-borne arboviruses in arctic america

Medical Biology
D M McLean

Abstract

Mosquito-borne arboviruses are prevalent throughout subarctic regions of Canada and Alaska, principally in the boreal forest extending between latitudes 53 and 66 degrees N, but they have been identified in tundra regions as far north as 70 degrees N. All mosquito-borne agents have been bunyaviruses, comprising principally the snowshoe hare subtype of California encephalitis (CE) virus, but also Northway virus. Mosquito vectors comprise several Aedes species and Culiseta inornata, all of which have supported replication of CE virus following incubation at 13 degrees C or lower temperatures. Isolation of virus from wild-caught larvae points towards transovarial transfer. Principal vertebrate reservoirs of infection are mammals, especially snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and ground squirrels (Citellus undulatus). Where the boreal forest merges into prairie grassland around 53 degrees N, Culex tarsalis mosquitoes become prevalent, and an alphavirus, western equine encephalomyelitis, is detected more frequently than CE virus.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Vertebrates
Encephalomyelitis
Jamestown Canyon virus
Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine
STAB2
Eutamias
Insect Vectors
Culiseta inornata
Larva
Encephalitis, California

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