Apr 2, 2017

Multi-echo fMRI: A review of applications in fMRI denoising and analysis of BOLD signals

NeuroImage
Prantik KunduPeter A Bandettini

Abstract

In recent years the field of fMRI research has enjoyed expanded technical abilities related to resolution, as well as use across many fields of brain research. At the same time, the field has also dealt with uncertainty related to many known and unknown effects of artifact in fMRI data. In this review we discuss an emerging fMRI technology, called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI, which focuses on improving the fidelity and interpretability of fMRI. Where the essential problem of standard single-echo fMRI is the indeterminacy of sources of signals, whether BOLD or artifact, this is not the case for ME-fMRI. By acquiring multiple echo images per slice, the ME approach allows T2* decay to be modeled at every voxel at every time point. Since BOLD signals arise by changes in T2* over time, an fMRI experiment sampling the T2* signal decay can be analyzed to distinguish BOLD from artifact signal constituents. While the ME approach has a long history of use in theoretical and validation studies, modern MRI systems enable whole-brain multi-echo fMRI at high resolution. This review covers recent multi-echo fMRI acquisition methods, and the analysis steps for this data to make fMRI at once more principled, straightforward, and powerful. After a brie...Continue Reading

  • References63
  • Citations16

References

  • References63
  • Citations16

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Research
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Functional Neuroimaging
Spatial Distribution
Brain
Optical Image Reconstruction
Echo-Planar MR Tomography
FMRI
Analysis

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