Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: evaluation of the genotype-phenotype relationship

Archives of Surgery
Linwah YipDouglas B Evans

Abstract

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is caused by RET proto-oncogene mutations and has a strong penetrance for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Subtypes are defined by the presence or absence of pheochromocytomas, hyperparathyroidism, and characteristic clinical stigmas. We hypothesize that specific RET mutations correlate with the MEN 2 phenotype and aggressiveness of MTC. Review of endocrine surgery database from 1951 through 2002. Tertiary referral center. Eighty-six patients from 47 kindreds were identified with MEN 2A, MEN 2B, or familial MTC. Patients were classified into 3 RET mutation risk groups: level 1, low risk for MTC (codons 609, 768, 790, 791, 804, and 891); level 2, intermediate risk (codons 611, 618, 620, and 634); and level 3, highest risk (codons 883 and 918). Stage of MTC at diagnosis and at last follow-up and frequency of pheochromocytomas and hyperparathyroidism. RET analysis was complete for 71 patients from 39 kindreds. Multivariate analysis identified an increased likelihood of stage III or IV MTC at diagnosis with increasing age (odds ratio, 1.12 per year of age at thyroidectomy; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.17; P<.001) and increasing risk group (odds ratio, 14.23 per incremental increase i...Continue Reading

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